Sure Cut Shears case study.

Running Head: Sure Cut Shears case study.

 

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  1. Describe Sure Cut Shears in terms of its market, competitive and operating characteristics? How risky is Sure Cut in operating and competitive terms?

Sure Cuts Shears Company generally specializes in producing industrial shears as well as household scissors. The distribution chain of Sure Cuts Shears products includes department stores, hardware stores, and wholesalers, around the country. It goes without saying that Sure Cuts Shears products have a large variety chain where they can be sold. The company faces severe competition from overseas companies; nonetheless, it has continued to register steady growth in sales and profits over the years. In its operations, the company has over the years made efforts to remain consistent in its operation as well as production, thus keeping it ahead in terms of competition.

 

  1. What assumptions did Mr. Fischer make when he prepared the pro-forma financial statements (forecasts) shown in case Exhibits 1& 2? Were these assumptions reasonable? (provide support for your answers)

While preparing the forecast (pro-formal financial statement) Mr. Fischer assumed that the loan would be serviced in full by the end of the year that is December 1995. Basing on this assumption, he arranged a line of credit of about three point five million dollars with the Hudson National Bank for purposes of covering necessities for the fall. Mr. Fischer also presented a pro forma estimate to Mr. Stewart to support his request for the fund requirements of the company over the next twelve month period. By June 1996, Mr. Fischer forecast that there was need for an additional one million dollars for purposes of supporting a program aimed at modernizing the company’s plant. These assumptions were not reasonable since they did not put into consideration other factors that would affect the ability of the company to pay back the loan in time as well as a possible increase in the cost of the modernization program for the plant. This explains why Sure Cuts Shears Company had to ask for more time to repay the loan as well as seek for an additional amount of about $350,000 to complete the plant modernization program.

 

  1. Why was Sure Cut Shears unable to honor its loan repayment to the bank by March 31, 1996 as originally scheduled and agreed?

The company was unable to honor its loan repayment to the bank by March 31, 1996 as originally scheduled and agreed because of the decline in its products sales. Confirming the inability of the company to pay the loan in time, Mr. Fischer called the bank in early April 1996 asking for more time to repay the loan while explaining that the company’s inability to pay the loan in time was largely attributed to the recession in retailing and thus liquidation of the loan at the time was impossible. In addition, the costs of plant modernization program by the company were higher than the company had initially anticipated.

  1.  How attractive is the company at the time of the financing need?

At the time of the financial need, Sure Cut Company was attractive in the sense that the company still had sufficient capital for purposes of covering its permanent necessities over the immediate prospect. Despite the fears competition from oversea companies, Sure Cut Company continued to register a steady growth both in sales and profits since the year 1958. In addition, the company held large amounts of deposit in major banks across the country. Another attraction to the company was the fact that most if not all its short- term loans from these principal banks were generally scheduled in the period between July and December of every year. These borrowings were typically meant to serve as additional working capital particularly when there was a need to boost a seasonal sales crest. Throughout the years, the company has made efforts to remain consistent in its operation as well as production. All this made the company attractive at the time of the financing need.

 

  1. Can the need for financing be dealt with by deferring expenditures? Payables? And why

Deferred expenditure denotes an accounting concept of expenditure, for which either a liability has been incurred or payment has been made and it is revenue in nature meant to benefit the company in future. It therefore follows that the long term financial needs for the company can be surely dealt with through such an arrangement of deferring expenditure and payables. Nonetheless, the short term financial needs of a company may not be achieved through such arrangements since the benefits of deferring expenditure and payables are not immediate but rather, they are felt in the long run. For this reason, short term and urgent need for financial support aimed at producing immediate result cannot be dealt with through deferring expenditures and Payables.

  1. How certain can Mr. Stewart is of the new forecasts?

Owing to the fact that Sure Cut Shears Company has in the previous years continued to register steady growth in sales and profits over the years, and its operations, as well as production has been consistent. Mr. Stewart can therefore, be certain that even though the company sales have declined, the company can be able to pay back the loans once it completes is modernization program as well as adjust to the new economic environment. This can be confirmed by the fact that in the history of the company there is a clear record of its consistency in it operations and production as a matter of policy.

  1. Has Sure Cut’s financial condition worsened sufficiently to cause Mr. Stewart any great concern?

The financial condition of SureCut Company has not worsened sufficiently to cause Mr. Stewart any great concern. This is because the company still has sufficient capital for purposes of coveringits permanent necessities over the immediate prospect. Additionally, the company as a matter of policy makes attempts to be consistent in production throughout the year. In addition, despite the severe competition the company has faced in the past, it has continued to register steady growth in sales and profits over the years. Nonetheless, it is pertinent for Mr. Stewart to investigate whether the change in the company’s loan needs caused by plant transformation program may require call for a change in the type of loan advanced to the company.

 

  1. Would you as Mr. Stewart agree to an extension of the loan repayment? Under what terms and conditions?

As Mr. Stewart i would indeed agree to an extension of the loan repayment period considering the fact that the company is in the process of a plant modernization program.  The terms and conditions for the repayment of the loan would include among others an agreed date for the completion of the loan repayment, and an additional interest rate while paying the loan following the initial default in the payment. This would motivate the company to pay in time without failure.

  1. When do you thing Sure Cut Shears be able to repay the loan in full?

In six months time Sure Cut Shears can be able to pay back in full the loan.  By the end of the six months, the company would have had enough time to complete its plant modernization program. In addition, the sales of the company by the end of the six months may have increased considerably following modernization of the production system which means improved quality of its products.

 

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Strategic Planning

Strategic Planning

 

 

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Table of content

Executive summary……………………………………………………………3

Introduction……………………………………………………………………3

Background and History………………………………………………………….4

Strategic Planning………………………………………………………………4

Direction and result……………………………………………………………5

Goals……………………………………………………………………………..6

Organization of the Strategic Plan……………………………………………….7

Vision statement…………………………………………………………………7

Vision statement of the ABC Service Agency…………………………………..7

Mission statement……………………………………………………………….8

Core Operating Values…………………………………………………………..9

The ABC Service Agency environmental scan…………………………………11

Conclusion………………………………………………………………………13

References………………………………………………………………………14

 

 

 

 

 

 

Executive summary

For a large corporate organization to prosper and survive in the current highly competitive business landscape, it needs to apply more methods than just forecast based planning or planning that is budget oriented. The organization must engage in developing a strategic plan that clearly outlines the objectives of the organization as well as engage in strategic planning that evaluates both the external and the internal situations of the organization for purposes of formulating a strategy, implementing such strategy, monitoring the progress, as well as introduce necessary modification to ensure that the organization remains relevant an competitive in the market.

Introduction

After thorough consultation with the staff and board of directors of the ABC Service Agency, I developed a strategic plan for this organization. The strategic planning provides the organization with a five year roadmap for purposes of services, supports as well as organization growth. The strategic plan will be reviewed by the staff as well as the Board of Directors to ascertain the progress on quarterly basis and also make annual updates of the plan where necessary. The strategic plan was design with the help of the board and the guidance from the staff as well as Board of Directors. The committee of strategic planning had five staff members and six members of the board. The organizational assessment as well as the environmental scan provided the necessary tool for purposes of assessing the challenges and opportunities of the ABC Service Agency.

 

 

Background and History

 

The ABC Service Agency started as a volunteer parent support group in the year 1961. Currently this organization offer services and supports to over two thousand disabled children and adults as well as their families annually. ABC Service Agency began is also one of the largest employers in the county. The services and support provided by the organization are designed for purposes of assisting persons and their families throughout their life time. The organizations’ services and supports include; respite care, support residential services as well as job placement, vocational training, and social activities. The organization also provides referral services, information as well as educates the community on the importance of involving individuals with disabilities.

Strategic Planning

Strategic Planning involves identifying the plans of an organization for purposes of achieving its mission. A strategy of an organization is therefore a derived method to realize the mission of such an organization (Dearden et al 2007). The outcome of a strategic planning endeavor is a strategic plan which explains the well thought out strategy and outlines the factors that may influence it (Ward & Peppard 2002). A strategic plan therefore, gives a detailed explanation of the organizational intentions as well as its environment.   The importance of strategic planning is not only to assist an organization in execution work, but also provides a platform for an organization architecture, risk management, process of improvement, as well as portfolio management. According to Heracleous, (2008) strategic planning may take many approaches. Nonetheless, a typical process of strategic planning assess the current abilities and environment of an organization, it also consider the manner in which such an organization intends to evolve or grow in future, further, the organizational aspirations are considered, and finally, the intentions of an organization to move forward (Cassidy 2006).

Direction and Results

In the five year period, the strategic goals and direction incorporated in The ABC Service Agency plan includes the response of the organizations’ understanding of the current challenges as well as opportunities for providing a high quality support system to the people with disabilities in the community, and what the customers of the organization value the most about its supports and services. It is worth noting that the strategic plan will run for a period of five years within which the organization will be able to examine and expand approaches used by The ABC Service Agency while carrying out its day- to- day activities. The organization will further undertake the leadership role for purposes of encouraging more volunteers and involving an extensive range of resources from the community.

The ABC Service Agency intend to undertake a number of strategic direction following a renewed perceptive on its understanding of what it does best, the situation in which it functions, and most importantly its mission. These strategic directions include:

A review of the current direct services and support will be carried out by the ABC Service Agency for purposes of expanding and improve them and to ensure that appropriate for working effectively with disabled persons.

The organization will also examine the needs of the community and consumer for purposes of identifying the necessary adjustment needed in providing services. The purpose of this evaluation is to identify the new services that need to be added or expanded.

The organization will investigate the viability of increasing its visibility within the community as well as utilize the services of volunteers optimally

The ABC Service Agency will further involve a broader array of providers in an effort to highlight as well as meet the requirements of disabled adults and children.

The organization will strive to put up a financial resource for purposes of improving the quality of services provided. To achieve this, the organization will introduce a maintenance fund to ensure that the property assets of the organization are intact.

Goals

After an environmental scan the ABC Service Agency goals were identified for purposes of providing a landscape for achieving the strategic direction. These goals involves: service delivery, human resource, and resource development.

Through resource development, the ABC Service Agency will be a well respected, highly visible, as well as an organization that is capable of more volunteers and more contributions for purposes of sustaining its operations. Effective implementation of resource development will lead to increased service delivery to consumers and more quality support. In addition, more consumers are get a chance to join the community and participate. The organization is also able to utilize a wide range of resources in the community for purposes of providing services and supports to people with disabilities. The aspirations of the ABC Service Agency are not tied on providing quality services and supports to disabled individuals; they are geared towards changing the conditions of the community for purposes of enabling all persons in the community to have a better life.

 

Under the human resources, the organization will set up a workforce that is motivated, highly qualified, and stable which is capable of accomplishing the mission of the organization. In service delivery, ABC Service Agency intend to provide individuals with disabilities and their families a model support directly or through referrals to or partnerships with other providers of  the  service such as leisure and recreation activities, residential support, and family support and education.

 

Organization of the Strategic Plan

The strategic plan forThe ABC Service Agency has a two of purposes. To begin with the strategic plan is used as a reference guide for purposes of strategic planning. The second purpose of the strategic plan is to prove a detailed set of the plan. The strategic plan is a documentation of decisions passed by the staff and the board of directors, and process of strategic planning.

 

Vision Statement

Vision statement can be described as a model that an organization aims to accomplish usually in the future (Conway 2004). Some of the elements found in the vision statement include: the role of the organization, the sources of finance, the appearance of the organization, and the scale of the work. Sometimes, it may encompass the main external assumptions that may affect the vision of an organization (Liedtka 2008)).

 

Vision statement of the ABC Service Agency

In 2020, the organization intend to achieve improved support and services, full inclusion and more acceptance by the community and more helpful and prevalent technology will be vital for purposes of improving the quality of life for people with disabilities. Because of population increase, rise in multiple diagnosis, and aging people with disabilities will continue to have varied and extensive needs. Even though there will be great improvement in the acceptance of individual with disabilities in the society, a continuous push for community participation and inclusion will be perused. Individual living with disabilities will have an opportunity to take charge of the resources as well as have an opportunity to select whomever they choose for purposes of providing them with support as well as assistance. The ABC Service Agency gets its funding from government contracts as well as innovative and robust fundraising

 

Mission Statement

A mission statement of an organization is a platform through which such an organization expresses in a precise way the changes it aims to bring about (Mintzberg 2004). The mission statement of the ABC Service Agency is attaining complete community life for adults and students with disabilities each at a time. The mission statement of ABC Service Agency outlines two aspects that describe the organization’s purpose as well as the contribution it intend to make for purposes of alleviating the lives of individuals with disabilities. The two aspects of the organization’s mission statement are attaining and complete community life.

 

The term attaining as used in the mission statement depict ensuring that children and adults with disabilities gets the opportunity and support they need for purposes assisting them realize their full  potential.

 

The phrase complete community life on the other hand, describes the chance for each one of the people living with disabilities to take part in forging a fulfilling and happy life.

Core Operating Values

 

Raynor, ( 2007) state that an organizations’ core operating values refers to the primary ideals which are at the heart of such an organization. Core operating values represents the ideals that provide guidance to an organization while striving to accomplish its mission effectively.  Fahey & Randall, (2007) note that they also represent the values that an organization aims at holding itself responsible. The public image as well as the culture of The ABC Service Agency is influenced by a number of core values that have enabled the organization to remain an effective community based as well as able to provide services to more families and individuals with disabilities. These values include: caring attitude, responsiveness, individual support, respectfulness, accountability and integrity, diversity, state of the art practices, advocacy, partnership, and financial sustainability (Van Der Heijden 2006) .

 

Under receptiveness, the ABC Service Agency honor the preferences of disable individuals, while at the same time supporting people with disabilities to take charge of their lives and realizing their full potential. The ABC Service Agency also respects and acknowledges the families role particularly in respect to assisting people with disabilities to make better choices in their lives.

 

As part of caring attitude, the ABC Service Agency exhibit concern as well as compassionate support for individuals with disabilities as well as their families. The organization further undertakes the responsibility of providing information and education to individuals living with disabilities and their families which is a clear demonstration of a caring attitude.

 

Under the core value of responsiveness, the ABC Service Agency designs solutions that are capable of solving the predicaments of people with disabilities and also meeting their needs. This is achieved through giving them direct services or sometimes through referrals to other alternative providers of such services.

 

In respect to individualized support the ABC Service Agency seek to appreciate the needs and choices of individuals with disabilities, since the organization is alive to the fact that such needs and choices are different among people with disabilities and may change with time. In light of that fact, the organization provides individual support to persons with disabilities to meet their needs.

 

As part of integrity and accountability ABC Service Agency maintains integrity of the premier levels in their outreach activities, provision of services and in the administrative work at all times. All these activities are attached to the mission of the organization at all times.

 

Under diversity, the ABC Service Agency is alive to the fact that individuals living with disabilities are from different religions, races, gender, and ethnicities. The organization therefore seeks to provide assistance to all individuals   with disabilities without favor and with respect to their different religions, races, gender, and ethnicities and to as many people as possible.

 

As part of the state of the art practices, the ABC Service Agency intend to adopt a state of the art approach that is of high quality and that can always be available to the people with disabilities at all times. In partnerships, the organization will continue working and collaborating with a wide range of partners as well as advocates for purposes of providing high quality services to individuals with disabilities and their families. The organization further advocates for public education and sensitization and most importantly for the long term best interests of disabled individuals.

 

In respect to financial sustainability, the organization strive to achieve its mission  through developing strategic choices that are well thought out for purposes of ensuring that the financial resources at our disposal is sufficient.  Financial sustainability is primary ideal at the heart of the ABC Service Agency because it believes that their services and supports are needed both in the present and future of the people living with disabilities.

 

The ABC Service Agency environmental scan

The process of identifying and recording organizational trends and fact in its operating environment that may have an impact on the future work of such an organization is referred to as environmental scan (Scott 2005). The findings of an environmental scan are used in the strategic planning in line with the mission of an organization. Sometimes, environmental scan may involve an internal information summary of an organization such as the current structure of the organization, what it has achieved, and the financial data of such an organization. The framework of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) is often used (Fogg 2004).

 

The staff and the board of the ABC Service Agency highlighted the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) of the organization which were incorporated in the strategic plan after the environmental scan.

 

Strengths

The key strengths of the ABC Service Agency have the ability to deliver high quality services and supports to individuals with disabilities and also help them to live their lives to the fullest. The organization also has a committed staff in delivering quality services. In addition, the organization uses innovation for purposes of solving its challenges. The impeccable reputation of the organization ensures that it remains a leader in service provision.

 

Weaknesses

The tremendous growth in the organization has resulted to human resources challenges, absence of a clear structure for purposes of coordination in different departments, and difficulty in supervision. There is also a need for the company to improve on its technology, intensify the use of volunteers, and improve the practices of management.

 

Opportunities

The ABC Service Agency consider the most important opportunities to include: new recreational and social activities, increased visibility that would encourage participation of more volunteers, increasing community inclusion acceptance of people with disabilities, and finally government agency waiver, as well as  increasing family support.

 

Threats

The issues that are considered to be threats to the ABC Service Agency include: the cost of providing care and challenges of staffing, reliance of government for funding, the aging population, and securing employment opportunities for disable persons.

 

 Conclusion

An organization strategic plan is an outline of the approach that it intends to use for purposes of achieving its mission. Strategic planning may be conducted in a number of ways, most of which culminate in developing a set of plans or a plan that articulate the goals of an organization and well laid out strategy for purposes of achieving these goals (Kessler & Kelley 2000). The organization must engage in developing a strategic plan that clearly outlines the objectives of the organization as well as engage in strategic planning that evaluates both the external and the internal situations of the organization for purposes of formulating a strategy, implementing such strategy, monitoring the progress, as well as introduce necessary modification to ensure that the organization remains relevant an competitive in the market (Heracleous 2003).

 

 

 

References

Boynton, A., & Zmud, R. (2004). “An Assessment of Critical Success Factors.” Journal on

            Management, vol.25, no. 1, pp. 17-27.

Cassidy, A. (2006). A Practical Guide to Information Systems Strategic Planning. Boca Raton,

Florida: Auerbach Publications.

 

Conway, M. (2004). Scenario Planning: An Innovative Approach to Strategy Development.           London: John             Wiley & Sons.

 

Dearden, J., et al. (2007). Management Control Systems. Homewood. Illinois: R. D. Irwin,

 

Fahey, L., & Randall, R. (2007). Learning from the Future. John Wiley & Sons.

 

Fogg, D. (2004). Team-Based Strategic Planning: A Complete Guide to Structuring, Facilitating,

            and Implementing the Process. New York: AMACOM/American Management      Association.

Heracleous, L. (2008).“Strategic Thinking or Strategic Planning.” Long Range Planning,vol 31,    no. 2, pp. 481-87.

 

Heracleous, L. (2003) Strategy and Organization: Realizing Strategic Management. Cambridge

University Press.

Kessler, T., & Kelley, P. (2000). The Business of Government: Strategy, Implementation &

            Results. John Wiley & Sons.

 

Liedtka, J. (2008)“Strategic Thinking: Can it be Taught?” Long Range Planning, vol.26, no. 2,     pp. 220-239.

Mintzberg, H.(2004). “The Fall and Rise of Strategic Planning.” Harvard Business Review,           vol.31, no. 2, pp. 481-87.

 

Raynor, M. ( 2007) The Strategy Paradox: Why Committing to Success Leads to Failure (and

            What to Do About It). New York: Doubleday.

Scott, B. (2005) An Introduction to Enterprise Architecture.  Bloomington: Author-

 

Van Der Heijden, K. (2006).  Scenarios: The Art of Strategic Conversation. John Wiley & Sons Limited,

 

Ward, J., & Peppard, J. (2002). Strategic Planning for Information Systems. John Wiley & Sons.

 

 

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Social Networking Web Site

Social Networking Web Site

 

 

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Introduction

In recent times, the world has witnessed significant evolution of modern media practices from the traditional forms. The key difference between the two forms of media practices according to Boyd & Ellison, (2007) being the level of interactivity and participation. Development of high technology in the modern world has taken the society into a new age of digitalization in which all aspects of our lives are stretched out across a variety of media where everyone contributes to the shaping up of such media. Much of this media according to Haythornthwaite, (2005) is related to or exists in the online world and/or the internet.  The use of internet has become part of our daily lives for reasons that are very obvious for instance it is cheaper, faster, and efficient way of communication. For these reasons, the internet has become increasing popular as a means of communication in the modern world, some of the social networking sites that are found online include among others MySpace, Twitter andFace book. The emergence of these social networking sites has obviously had an impact on the society. The impacts that have emanated from social networking sites are both negative and positive, nonetheless, experts argue that there are more positive than negative influences that social networking provides to the society particularly in regard to relationships. The aim of this study is to evaluate the positive impacts of social networking on social relationships in the modern world.

Discussion

            Boyd and Ellison, (2007) describes a social networking site as a website in which persons create their profile online, that describe their interests and sometimes who they are. As such, social networking enables individuals with shared interest to connect and exchange views such as economic, social, or political views. It is evident from the characteristics of social networking sites that they play a very important role in enhancing social interaction as well as communication hence improving relationships. The social networking sites are often used to establish new relationships as well as to communicate with the existing friends and those that we share interests.

            Social Networking sites enhance social relationships by create a sense unity among individuals who share similar interest. Through these groups found in the social networking sites individuals in the group develop a sense of belonging and unity to a particular group out there in instances where such a person felt isolated due to his or her inability to associate with other people in the local community (Lampe et al, 2007). This may be the scenario in areas where the population is small making it very difficult to find other individual with similar interests. Social networking sites would provide a better avenue to address such predicaments by breaking the location barriers and opening up communication links with other individuals outside a given locality with similar interests.

            Where mobility is a problem, social networking sites provides an opportunity to communicate with whoever a person would want to keep in touch with, without having to move an inch. In light of the above, individual with physical disabilities or even elderly people who may not be able to move from one place to another for purposes of keeping in touch with their loved ones of existing relations may comfortably utilize the existing social networking sites without any kind on strain. Some social networking site such as face book and my space encourages participation and interactions (Granovetter, 2000). These sites encourage interaction as well as participation through creating groups of individuals who share similar interests, the group members share information that they deem important and as such the relationship among group members continue to develop.

Conclusion

            Indeed, there are numerous benefits that emanate from social networking sites especially in boosting social relationships in the modern society. Since most social networking sites are dependent on participation and constant interactions they become an avenue through which users are able to maintain constant and strong relationships regardless of distance, disability, or even social standings. It goes without saying that the existence of social networking sites enables individual across the world to be able to create new connection with other individuals, present themselves in the social networking sites, and be able to define their social networks (Haythornthwaite, 2005). These social networking sites may be used to bring positive impacts in a number of contexts such as romantic relationship, working relationship, linking individuals with share interests such as politics, football, and music among other interests.  These networks may therefore be used as an important tool for purposes of creating, maintaining and developing relationships without having to worry about the distance between or among such individuals.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Boyd, D., & Ellison, N. (2007). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship.              Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), 34-57.

Haythornthwaite, C. (2005). Social networks and Internet connectivity effects. Information,         Communication, & Society, 8 (2), 125-147.

Granovetter,  S. (2000). The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited. Thousand Oaks,      CA: Sage Publications.

Lampe, C., et al. (2007). A familiar Face book: Profile elements as signals in an online social        network. New York: ACM Press.

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Implementing an Innovative New Product or Service (Youthfulness)

Running Head: Implementing an Innovative New Product or Service (Youthfulness)

 

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Outline

Introduction

Discussion

Conclusion

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Introduction

In the modern day lifestyle, premature aging has become the order of the day due to the increased work demands, stress, as well as depression.   It has been argued that the reason as to why people are aging much earlier than their actual age and losing their attraction and charm of their body as well as faces is due to the inactive lifestyle that majority of people are leading coupled with dietary deficiency caused by not consuming a diet that is well balanced and bad eating habits such as eating at irregular intermissions (Yonei et al., 2004).  Consequently, such individuals begin to experience premature wrinkles on their skin, constant lethargy, and graying hair. It is against this backdrop that an extensive search around the world has been undertaken to find a suitable skin care and anti-aging product for purposes of combating premature aging and retaining the youthfulness of an individual as he or she was some years before. This extensive search for a skin care and anti-aging product has lead to a new innovation of a product known as Youthfulness. This product is designed to stimulate growth of new cells on the skin, purify and clean the skin for purposes of promoting a fresh, healthy glow. Youthfulness is further designed to reinforce skin elasticity as well as to give the skin that soft and smooth touch (Goldberg et al., 2003).

Discussion

It is worth noting that there are two distinct ways through which aging in human skin takes place. These two distinct processes include: the outer (extrinsic) aging and the inner (intrinsic) aging. To begin with, the intrinsic or inner aging is an unavoidable natural process that culminates from natural degeneration of tissues. In this kind of aging, the skin of an individual loses hydration, collagen as well as the degeneration of fiber network of the skin responsible for elasticity. As such, the ability of the skin to bounce back is significantly reduced. The extrinsic or outer aging on the other hand, is generally cause by environmental factors in which the skin is exposed. A good example of an environmental factor that causes outer aging is ultraviolet radiation (UV). When the skin is exposed to such UV rays, it begins to manifest photo-damage signs such as sun spots (hyper-pigmentation), fine lines, and wrinkles.

Fortunately, the innovation of youthfulness a new skin care and anti-aging product has brought a great relief and solution to skin care as well as combated the effect of aging. This product is designed to restore an individual’s skin to a more vibrant state and youthful as the name of the product seems to suggest. As pointed out in the introduction, the use of Youthfulness as a skin care and anti-aging product provides the customers with several benefits that may not be found in other skin care and anti-aging products. These benefits include cleansing and refreshing the skin, hydrating the skin to give it a dewy glow, youthfulness is also formulated to stimulate an increase in the blood circulation within the skin, and to protect the skin against damages caused by the sun rays. Most importantly, this product is formulated to nourish the skin with the essential nutrients that maintain the youthful and radiant glow look.

It has been postulated that youthfulness the new innovation product for skin care and anti-aging is specifically designed to address particular needs of individual skin type (Nava, 2008). With the ingredients such as collagen builders, Youthfulness is formulated to enhance production of new collagen in the skin and stimulate tissue repair.  The product further contains nutrients and vitamins that are essential for a healthy skin. In all, the unique formulation of youthfulness provides customers  with a viable solution to skin care and a weapon to combat a number of aging signs (Goldberg et al., 2003). Without a doubt, youthfulness is an essential and unique skin care and anti- aging product that can alleviate a radiant and more youthful skin complexion on an individual.

Be as it may, skin care and anti-aging products such as youthfulness do not guarantee complete effectuality as well as safety of their use. Combating intrinsic (inner) aging using such product may not bring out the desired effect owing to the fact that this type of aging occurs naturally and there is nothing much that one can do about it. It should also be noted that the use of parabens to increase the shelf life  of youthfulness may cause skin rashes where there is a prolonged use of this product. In addition, the use of mineral oil in this product may alter the normal functioning of the skin thus, causing pimples and acne (Yonei et al., 2004).

Conclusion

            Indeed, the innovation of youthfulness as a skincare and anti-aging product has gone a long way in satisfying the crazy drive in the modern society to maintain a beautiful skin and a youthful look. As aforementioned, youthfulness contains ingredients such as collagen builders to enhance production of new collagen in the skin and stimulate tissue repair. In addition, this product protects the skin against damage caused by the sun rays and most importantly, it contains nutrients and vitamins that are essential for a healthy as well as youthful skin look. That notwithstanding, youthfulness may not alleviate intrinsic aging as it is caused by an unavoidable natural process that culminates from natural degeneration of tissues.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Nava, D. (2008). Skin Aging Handbook: An Integrated Approach to Biochemistry and       Product Development, New York: William Andrew.

Goldberg, D. et al. (2003). Light Years Younger: The Definitive Guide to Anti-Aging Skin Care, Washington: Capital Books.

Yonei, Y. et al. (2004). Effects of cosmetics therapy using isoflavone and pine bark         extract on the skin and QOL:  A double-blind placebo-controlled trial.  A journal     on skin care and Anti-Aging products, 1(3), 48-58.

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Self Assessment Mission and Vision

Self Assessment Mission and Vision

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Three Action Verbs:

  • accuracy
  • respect
  • integrity

 

Mission Statement:

My accounting mission statement is to provide services to the community with accuracy as well as the needed and relevant financial information and professional services in the most effective and efficient way possible. I intend to earn the trust and confidence of clients by conducting business with at most respect and integrity.

 

Vision Statement: (what i want to be)

In my accounting career, I intend to make a valuable contribution to my client’s organization. In an effort to achieve this mission, i will focus on collaborative efforts, team work and professionalism while providing my accounting services of high standards.

Accounting services will always safeguard the confidential information provided, exercise objectivity, diligence as well as honesty in every activity that i undertake. In addition, I will treat my clients and everybody with at most understanding respect, and courtesy. Further, i will always strive to adhere to ethical standards that ought to be followed and also observe the highest professional standards while providing my accounting services. Finally, i will always use my skills, knowledge and current technology for purposes of improving the quality of my services to all my clients at all times.

It should also be noted that l look forward to provide my accounting services to my clients in the future that includes; a great dedication to community responsibility, a great commitment to providing quality services that are affordable , and finally always exercise at most respect for all individuals and my clients.

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Personal Statement

Personal Statement

 

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In my life, I have never been complacent with the level of knowledge that I have over the years acquired. The objectives that I have always outlined are geared towards stretching my knowledge and I have always relied on my experience and the experience of my mentors for purposes of developing my personality while taking caution that what I have learnt on the way is not lost. Eventually, this has become the path of my life. Majoring in education will certainly not extinguish my desire for knowledge and it will not be a final achievement but rather a stepping stone to my quest of knowledge and ultimately giving back to the society.

By joining the school of education, I am certain that the experience and knowledge I stand to gain will be very vital in expanding my mind in various ways. Such knowledge and experience will give me an opportunity to hand current and future intellectual, professional, as well as academic goals with full confidence and more enthusiasm that is required in the education sector of our country.

During my high school years, I had an opportunity to represent my class in several educational conferences and seminars.  These opportunities provided me with substantial experience and various aspects of education in our country. The impression that I got from these conferences is that education is concrete and yet a sector that is very dynamic. In the school of education, I sought rational personal improvements through tenacity, independent thinking, and perseverance amidst possibilities of fierce criticism. It is my believe that majoring in education will provide me with the necessary tools for purposes of using my abilities optimally not only to quench my thirst for knowledge but also to of great service to the community.

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Performance Enhancing Drugs

Performance Enhancing Drugs

 

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Introduction

From time immemorial whenever the human race has engaged in sports that are competitive, they have always tried to anything in their power to have an advantage over their competitor. It does not therefore come as a surprise that in the past few years, a number of athletes have been caught using performance enhancing substances or doping.  For this reason, the issue of doping has become a matter of public debate. It is worth mentioning from the onset that performance enhancing substances are drugs used for purposes of boosting the physical stamina or abilities of an individual. Athletes take these substances for various reasons such as to build strength and  mass of bones or muscles, to Increase oxygen delivery  to the  tissues that are exercising, to mask or dull  pain, to stimulate and relax the body, to hide use of other drugs, to reduce weight, to  boost their own confidence, or sometimes to cope with stress.  Notwithstanding the fact that the use of performance enhancing substance in sports has a long history, doping among athletes is perhaps one of the most talked about if not the most controversial issue in the modern world of sports.

The use of performance enhancing substances has become so rampant to the extent that when an athlete in a certain field is doing stunningly well, speculations on such an athlete using steroids arise. Surprisingly, such speculations in the world of sport today turn out to be true in most instances. The use of performance enhancing substances can be trace back to ancient Greece where they were referred to as performance elixirs and sometimes performance portions.  These portions were given to athletes in Greece for purposes of training for major games completion. The use of such substances continued among athletes until the advent of advanced technology in the twentieth century which was able to regularly examine athletes and to impose bans on the use of such substances.

The use of performance enhancing substances as well as steroids for whichever reason has numerous unsafe if not dangerous side effects. Such effects include increased hair growth, testicles shrinking in men, and lowering a persons’ voice. Other substances such as diuretics which are used to enhance weight loss may have some effects such as fainting spells as well as light-headedness. This study is aims at exploring the reasons underlying the rampant use of performance enhancing drugs by athletes.

Literature review     

            Study shows thatthe use of performance enhancing substances has become so rampant to the extent that when an athlete in a certain field is doing stunningly well, speculations on such an athlete using steroids arise (Schwenk & Costley, 2002). In a research conducted by Winterstein & Storrs, (2001) athletes may resort to use performance enhancing substances in order to build strength and mass of bones or muscles, to Increase oxygen delivery to the tissues that are exercising, to mask or dull pain, to stimulate and relax the body, to hide use of other drugs, to reduce weight, to boost their own confidence.

Feinberg, (2009) observes that aanabolic steroids are used by athletes for purposes of boosting their muscles strength. It has been contended that the use of these anabolic steroids which may be taken in form of pills or even as an injection, allows an athlete to train for longer and harder for a particular period of time(O’Dea, & Rawstone, 2001). Medical experts warn that there are a number of side effects associated with the use of this particular steroid which include but not limited to mood swings, liver damage and jaundice, aggression and depression (Graham et al. 2008). In men, anabolic steroid may cause breast development, baldness, and infertility. Female athletes who use such performance enhancing substance may suffer from infertility, and they may also grow excessive hair on the body and face. Others substances that may produces similar side effects include; Luteinizing Hormone (LH), and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) ( O’Dea, & Rawstone, 2001).

The athletes whose aim is to build body mass usually misuse the Human Growth Hormone. A recent research by Graham et al, (2008) there are indications that an excessive use of   Human Growth Hormone strengthens the bones of an individual by stimulating the growth of bones as well as trim down the fats in the body. Most athletes according to Mazanov & Huybers,  (2010) use Human Growth Hormone because this substance while used is very difficult to be noticed. The difficulty involved in the detection of this performance enhancing substance encourages more athletes to use it. The side effects of Human Growth Hormone include among others heart problems, internal organs that are enlarged, particularly the tongue, heart, liver, and kidneys and acromegaly (which is a condition that involves overgrowth of face hands, and feet(O’Dea, & Rawstone, 2001).

In addition to taking performance enhancement substances for purposes increasing strength and building mass, other athletes uses these substances to increase the amount of oxygen delivery in their body tissues (Kirby, Moran & Guerin, 2011). The use of substances such as Erythropoietin (EPO) can increase the delivery of oxygen in the tissues of an athlete up to 10% thus increasing their endurance. Medical experts state that the use of Erythropoietin (EPO) by athletes can be extremely dangerous if not suicidal. This substance increases the density of red blood cells thus causing the blood to thicken. The thick blood is less viscous and therefore cannot be able to circulate well through the blood circulation system, in addition, the heart must work extra harder in an effort to pump the blood due to its thickness. In such a situation the athlete is at a risk of suffering a stroke even a heart failure.

According to Kersotis, (2003) other than building muscles and strengthening bones, athletes use performance enhancing substances such as anabolic steroids to help them recover more quickly particularly from a strenuous workout. These steroids mitigate the damage that occurs on muscles during the training period. Consequently an athlete is able to train harder and for longer without overstraining their bodies. Powers, (2001) note that some other athletes may use performance enhancing substances simply because of the aggressive feeling that an individual once they use such substance. In a study conducted recently, some athletes  decide to use performance enhancement drugs due to the availability of such substances that cannot be detected by using the current tests that are used to scan athletes such substances include designer steroids. These steroids are specially made for athletes even though they have not yet got any approved medical application.

Methodology

Research framework.

The design of the research outlines the reason as to why the research is conducted and the people involved in the research study. The research uses questionnaires and observation as a method of data collection. The study therefore uses qualitative research method in an effort to get an in-depth exploration of factors that affect the behaviors of human beings as well as create and understanding of common trends of opinion and thoughts in a particular issue.

The use of questionnaires in the research plays a significant role in evaluating the reasons behind athletes using performance enhancement substances. In addition, the questionnaires are vital in establishing the effects and possible consequences.

The questions that were developed in the questionnaire were relevant to the research topic and aimed at establishing the reasons as to why athletes uses performance enhancement substance, and the possible effects of using such drugs. The questionnaire had ten questions which were used to examine the prevalent of performance enhancing drugs and the general perception of such drugs. The questionnaires were answered by athletes from a local gym and the total numbers of participants in the study were 50 individuals.

Target population

The target population that the research intends to use involves athletes from a local gym. Some of the athletes from the gym did not use performance enhancement drugs as their main purpose was to work out for their general body fitness. Nonetheless, some of the participants who wanted to look like body builders used performance enhancement drugs to boost their strengths as well as develop muscles. It is worth noting that those athletes who admitted to using this drugs stated that the most commonly used were human growth hormone as well as anabolic androgenic steroids. Most of the elite athletes from the gym distanced themselves from the use of such substances. Most of them indicated that the reason as to why they do not use these substances was that they underwent frequent tests particularly from their respective sporting discipline. They were therefore cautious not to be caught and jeopardize their careers in addition to the health risks associated with such drugs.

Discussion

            It remains uncertain as to whether or not those who believe that performance enhancing substance tests are easy to circumvent might be contented with the renewed efforts of testing. Nonetheless, it is a non-refutable fact that the careers of a good number of elite athletes have been greatly affected by the performance enhancing drug tests (O’Dea, & Rawstone, 2001). At the Olympic level for instance, once an athlete is tested and confirmed positive of using performance enhancing drug, he or she is stripped of all the records that such an individual held as well as all the medals he/she has ever won. In addition, such an athlete who is a first offender is banned for two good years from participating in any form of competition. An example of such an athlete who was stripped all his medals and banned from ever participating on any competition involving track and field events was Ben Johnson a Canadian sprinter back in 1988.

Since time immemorial, the use of drugs by athletes to enhance their performance has been part of the competition in athletic. This has always been driven by the desire of athletes to have an upper hand over their adversaries during competitions, notwithstanding the detection efforts put in place. In a revelation of sports history review, sports and performance enhancement substances have a long history together (Powers, 2001). Even though the use of these drugs was tolerated in earlier years, several factors led to the shift of that tolerance to testing and banning their use. One notable factor is perhaps the advancement in technology of creating these drugs particularly in the 1950s. Another factor may have been the concern that the athletes who used such performance enhancement drugs would have an unfair advantage over those who did not use such drugs during athletic competitions. The shift might have also been motivated by the fact that there was need to prevent and protect athletes from consuming substances that are illicit and harmful to their health (Winterstein, & Storrs (2001).

The opponents of performance enhancing substance maintain that the athlete who uses such substances is a cheat and a disgrace to true sportsmanship. They maintain that in the behavior remains unchecked, then, sporting activities ceases to be sports but rather a science laboratory (Smith & Dahn, 2000). The only thing that can retain the integrity of sports and athletes for that matter is drug testing. The athletes who support the use of performance enhancing drugs maintain that there is no cheating or any form of unfair advantage when they use such drugs. They contend that by using such drugs, one has a better chance of getting better training as well as coaching facilities which they otherwise may not have access for purposes of strengthening their competitive advantage. Others argue that due to the high competition levels during elite sporting events, the use of these drugs may be necessary.

In their research Schwenk & Costley, (2002) found out that the readiness to use performance enhancing substances among athletes may be explained by the great need of athletes to remain competitive and relevant in their respective sports. Due to the advancement in technology sportsmen and women have achieved millions of fun all over the world as they can be watch while they are performing their sporting activities through many mediums. In an effort to retain those funs and their esteem, many athletes are more than willing to do anything that it takes including the use of performance enhancing substances.

Conclusion

Notwithstanding the fact that using performance enhancement substance is prohibited among athletes, they are at times inclined or willing to use them anyway for various reasons such as to build strength and mass of bones or muscles, to Increase oxygen delivery to the tissues that are exercising, to mask or dull pain, to stimulate and relax the body, to hide use of other drugs, to reduce weight, to boost their own confidence, or sometimes to cope with stress.  These performance enhancing substances also mitigate the damage that occurs on muscles during the training period. Thus, an athlete is able to train harder and for longer without overstraining their bodies. Therefore, apart from building muscles and strengthening bones, athletes use performance enhancing substances such as anabolic steroids to help them recover more quickly particularly from a strenuous workout (Kersotis, 2003). Some athletes may use performance enhancing substances simply because of the aggressive feeling that an individual once they use such substance.

Athletes use substances such as Anabolic steroids for purposes of boosting their muscles strength. Other substances that may be used for enhancing muscles strength are Luteinizing Hormone and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin. Other athletes use these substances to increase the amount of oxygen delivery in their body tissues. The use of substances such as Erythropoietin can increase the delivery of oxygen in the tissues of an athlete up to ten percent thus increasing their endurance (Graham et al, 2008). There are a number of side effects that culminate from the use of performance enhancement substances which include among others; increased hair growth, testicles shrinking in men, and lowering a persons’ voice. Other substances such as diuretics which are used to enhance weight loss may have some effects such as fainting spells as well as light-headedness. Other side effects may include; mood swings, liver damage and jaundice, aggression and depression. In men, anabolic steroid may cause breast development, baldness, and infertility. Female athletes who use such performance enhancing substance may suffer from infertility, and they may also grow excessive hair on the body and face.

The use of performance enhancement substances was tolerated in earlier years, however, several factors led to the shift of that tolerance to testing and banning their use. One notable factor is perhaps the advancement in technology of creating these drugs particularly in the 1950s. Another factor may have been the concern that the athletes who used such performance enhancement drugs would have an unfair advantage over those who did not use such drugs during athletic competitions. The shift might have also been motivated by the fact that there was need to prevent and protect athletes from consuming substances that are illicit and harmful to their health ((Powers, 2001).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Feinberg, J. M. (2009). College Students’ Perceptions of Athletes Who Cheat: The Role of Performance and History. Journal Of Sport Behavior, 32(4), 460-475

Graham, M. R., Davies, B., Grace, F. M., Kicman, A., & Baker, J. S. (2008).Anabolic Steroid       Use.Sports Medicine, 38(6), 505-525.

Kersotis, P. (2003). Baseball’s laughable drug testing no longer funny. Florida today, Retrieved

September 15, 2003, from http://www.cincinnatti.com/MLBdrugtesting.

Kirby, K., Moran, A., & Guerin, S. (2011). A qualitative analysis of the experiences of elite athletes who have admitted to doping for performance enhancement. International Journal Of Sport Policy, 3(2), 205-224.

Mazanov, J., & Huybers, T. (2010). An empirical model of athlete decisions to use performance-enhancing drugs: qualitative evidence. Qualitative Research In Sport & Exercise, 2(3), 385-402.

O’Dea, J., & Rawstone, P. (2001). Male adolescents identify their weight gain practices and

reasons for desired weight gain and sources of weight gain information. Journal of            American Dietetics Association, 101,105-108.

Powers, M.(2001). Ephedra and its application to sport performance; another concern for the

athletic trainer. Journal of Athletic Training Association, 36, 420-424.

 

Schwenk,T.L., & Costley,C.D. (2002). When food becomes a drug: nonanabolic nutritional

supplement use in athletes. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 30, 907-917.

 

Smith, J., & Dahn, D.C. (2000). Creatine use among a select population of high school athletes.

            Mayo Clinical Proceedings, 75, 1257-1274.

Winterstein, A.P., & Storrs, C.M. (2001). Herbal supplements: considerations for the         athletictrainer. Journal of Athletic Training Association, 36, 435-432.

 

 

 

 

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A comparison between outsourcing the first level IT help desk of U.S. based publicly traded firms overseas

Running Head: A comparison between outsourcing the first level IT help desk of U.S. based publicly traded firms overseas.

 

 

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Outline

Introduction

Discussion

Conclusion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

Outsourcing may be described as a deliberate act of a particular firm to enter into an agreement with another firm for purposes of providing services which may otherwise be executed by the employees of the contracting company.  It goes without saying that the outsourced responsibilities could as well be carry out by the outsourcing firm itself, nevertheless, the deliberate act of a given company to outsource are driven by financial as well as strategic advantages that accrue from such a process (Buchanan, 2006). Consequently, a number of companies have embarked on outsourcing various tasks often to overseas locations. These locations may be enticing to such companies due to the availability of relatively cheap labor force and the general cost of operations in such countries. The tasks that are often outsourced include among others, e-mail services, payroll, as well as call center services. Many a times, such tasks are outsourced to different firms which have specialized in such fields.

Even though there are various explanations as to where a particular company would make a decision to outsource different tasks, the need to save money could be argued to be the most outstanding rational. This could be explained by the fact that most of the outsourcing services companies particularly in locations overseas may be able to provide their services, while demanding fees that are relatively low.  Such companies don’t have to worry about overhead expenses, as they are often few, and rarely do they give their workers hefty benefits. It is also much cheaper for one company to outsource to other companies in various countries depending on the location (Doh, 2005).

It has been suggested that the act of outsourcing help desk services of a particular company gives it an opportunity to direct its attention to other business matters while the experts or specialist from outside the firm, takes care of the details involved in the task. It therefore, follows that much attention and huge amount of resources that the management professionals have to sacrifice in an effort to accomplish such tasks may be directed towards other broader and significant matters within the firm. It is worth noting that more often than not, outsourced work is carried out by highly specialized companies (Mehta et al, 2006). These companies are well equipped with the latest and advanced technology which may not be affordable to the outsourcing company. In addition, the firms that undertake outsourced tasks are highly streamlined, and apart from the effective services such companies could provide to the outsourcing company, the prospects of expanding its business to overseas locations could prove to be cost effective.

As aforementioned, there are a number of advantages associated with outsourcing. Nonetheless, it would be illogical not to mention the various drawbacks associated with outsourcing, as advantages goes hand in hand with disadvantages.  Outsourcing as well has a number of drawbacks which among others include: the act of outsourcing is likely obstructs the effort of the outsourcing firm to put up a strong relationship with the clients of the firm. Consequently, both or one party may ends up not being satisfied. Another drawback of outsourcing is that fact that, the outsourcing company may lose control over certain aspects which are vital to the company. Thus, the outsourcing company may be faced with challenges such as implementation of projects and delayed communications since the outsourcing company have no direct control over that company that undertakes the outsourced tasks. In addition, there is a possibility of sensitive or confidential information leakage, which may leave the outsourcing company vulnerable and heavily dependent on the company handling outsourced jobs. In such an instance, if the company handling outsourced jobs decides to pull out of the contract, the outsourcing company may be left at a very dangerous position (Calantone and Stanko, 2007).

Discussion

Over the years, business enterprises have always searched for avenues through which they can improve their operations as well as maximize their profits. One of the most recent methods of cutting the cost of business operation is through outsourcing help desk services. According to Henley, 2006, the deliberate act of outsourcing help desk services to overseas locations allows a company to streamline its operations particularly if it is experiencing streams of diminishing revenues. The company handling the outsourced tasks deals with the peripheral work of the contraction company while the contracting company is able to focus its attention to the most important aspects of the business (Henley, 2006). The companies in the united states that have undertaken outsourcing help desk services to overseas locations are able to reduce tremendously their expenses on the work force. It is not surprising that such company may save up to about 70% on their labor force expenditure notwithstanding the fact that these companies continue to get the same revenue as before from the company providing handling the outsourced work and the outsourced workers.

Companies in the United States spend a considerable amount of money every month to maintain their workstations of help desk. Henley, 2006, observes that most of the companies are no longer willing to incur such expenses and they have instead turned to outsourcing help desk services. This saves them the cost of maintaining help desk workstations within the country. Outsourcing help desk services to overseas locations present a big advantage for the outsourcing company in the sense that the support efforts involved in maintaining a work station are eliminated. The performance level of the outsourcing company in terms of help desk services improves. Dossani  and Kenney, 2004 are of the view that since help desk service in any company forms  the firm’s  public face, the outsource work force must be in a position to know what is required of them at all times, and to prioritize the interests of customers as help desk services entails direct interaction with customers. It therefore, follows that entering into a contract involving outsourcing help desk services requires precise and clear outline of what is expected from the company and workers handling the help desk services to avoid mistakes which may be very costly.

Outsourcing help desk services are developed for purposes of serving as a main spot for requesting services as well as dealing with everyday occurrences that the overseas IT users may encounter. There are a number of   functions, roles and processes that must be spelt out in order to proved the help desk service. The importance of defining such roles, processes, as well as functions is derived from the fact that help desk services are aimed at dealing with service requests emanating from IT users and addressing other incident. These are the basic aims of the help desk. It is worth noting that the function of a help desk center is to smooth the progress of delivering high quality and effective help desk services. This is achieved through the process of synchronizing various help desks situated in different locations across the world.

There are a number of challenges that are encountered by the IT office located overseas. These problems include: the inability of such offices to assign an IT expert in time, for purposes of handling the issue at hand, as such, it becomes very difficult for the user to receive the desired support in good time thus, affecting his work. It is not surprising that business opportunities may be lost following such incidents and that means a decline in business profits.  In some instances, though an IT member may be available to address the outsourced issues, there is a possibility that every time a similar issue comes on the way of an end user, his work may be interrupted.  Cultural and language barriers may also pose a big challenge while outsourcing first level help desk services to sites located overseas. This argument may be informed by the fact that communication of customers and the service providers of the help desk services may not be very effective as it should be due to the difference in language (Bunyaratavej et al, 2007).

It has been argued by experts that outsourcing tasks to overseas locations assists in boosting globalization not to mention the fact that the living standards improve tremendously in the countries where the outsourced tasks are designated. American consumers are also able to access services and products at a low price since the American companies are able to produce such services and products at a lower production cost and hence improving the economy of the country. Amiti and Wei, 2005, are of the view that outsourcing help desk services does not only reduce the cost of labor to the American companies  which undertake to outsource some tasks to overseas locations but also help them in terms of offshore tax advantage that accrues with outsourcing. The competitiveness of a company is bound to improve tremendously through outsourcing jobs as the company will have an international outlook.

Even though many companies in the United States view outsourcing as a business venture that is extremely profitable, it is a very big nightmare to the United States workers who have to lose there well paying jobs to professionals in the same area of specialty from oversea locations since such professionals are much cheaper to hire and maintain than their American counterparts (Maskell et al. 2007). It goes without saying that the act of American companies outsourcing  first level IT  help desk service to overseas locations leads to high levels of company workers in the united states most of whom are more educated than their counterparts working with the companies handling outsourced help desk services overseas.

Sometime American companies may be at a very high risk as the outsourcing providers from overseas locations may not be able to handle and perform the outsourced tasks as per the standards and expectations of the American companies. The enormous layoffs that follow outsourcing by American companies may result to serious financial losses following the payments that ought to be paid to the laid off workers not to mention the fact that the remaining workers may lose motivation to work for the company following the layoff.  Most companies in the united stated after outsourcing jobs do not hold on to their experienced and highly skilled workers. As such, these companies may be at a very high risk of losing their well trained personnel to their competitors.

In instances where the providers of the outsourced services experience high turnover, they are most likely to higher less qualified employees who are cheap and also use out outdated technology to optimize their resources.  More often than not, the companies that are contracted to handle that outsourced tasks fail to make good of their undertaking which they had pledge to the outsourcing company. The result is delivery of services that are substandard. Research has shown that poor language skills within the overseas companies that handle outsourced tasks present a huge obstacle in providing high quality services to customer. The situation makes it impossible for the proper communication between the customers and the service provider.

The ability of any company to take full advantage of its global potential for collaboration and integration can determine the financial performance of such a company in the global economy. For this reason, the company must do everything within its powers to alleviate its operations such as tapping the extra new value as well as new talents, all of which are geared towards making the company’s products and services much better than those provided by their competitors (Dossani, and Kenney, 2004). It therefore, goes without saying that in the evolution of business change, outsourcing can play a critical role particularly in driving the advances required for such purposes. The continued prosperity of any successful business enterprise is determined by the ability of such an enterprise to take advantage and adapt to the changes that comes on its way. Such companies are able to respond to emerging markets with less effort compared to their competitors.

Through outsourcing, first level IT help desk of the united state are able to provide to their customers high quality services , and also allows such firms to effect novel approaches that makes them distinct from other competitors in the local and global market. Calantone and Stanko, 2007, suggest that cost repression and workload efficiency in any first level IT help desk of the united state can be effectively achieved through outsourcing. In the argument advanced by Dossani and Kenney, 2004, outsourcing is a viable avenue through which first level IT help desk of the united state is exposed to novel untapped capabilities, expertise, as well as ideas that are found in other locations. As it is argued by some authors, outsourcing present a viable avenue for insights and innovations which are capable of changing the way in which issues are dealt with (Calantone and Stanko, 2007). Cloud computing for instance can be cited as a perfect illustration of the latest manifestation of outsourcing. Through this cloud technology, developers are able to create and analyze new applications within the shortest time possible.

According to Maskell et al, 2007, outsourcing the first level IT help desk of the United States creates an enabling ground for globalization through creating employment opportunities throughout the overseas locations where such companies handling the outsourced work. Decisions of outsourcing first level IT help desk services should always be undertaken in consideration to other actions in the management for purposes driving a company towards an optimal financial performance. It goes without saying that outsourcing of the first level IT help desk services to overseas locations gives a company an opportunity  to concentrate with other important aspects pertaining to the company while other issues are dealt with by the providers of outsourced tasks. This makes it easy for the companies based in the United States to provide services and products at a low price to consumers since they are able to produce such services and products at a lower production cost and hence improving the economy of the United States.

Conclusion

Outsourcing the first level IT help desk of U.S. based, companies to overseas locations is indeed a brilliant business decision that any company can undertake. Through outsourcing first level IT help desk of U.S. bases companies to firms overseas, a firm is able to optimize its revenue not to mention the fact that the costs of operations are reduced tremendously. Outsourcing help desk services to companies that handle such tasks overseas is associated with numerous benefits to the outsourcing company. Outsourcing help desk services of a particular company gives it an opportunity to direct its attention to other business matters while the experts or specialist from outside the firm, takes care of the details involved in the task. Outsourced first level IT held desk work is carried out by highly specialized companies. These companies are well equipped with the latest and advanced technology which may not be affordable to the outsourcing company.

In addition, the firms that undertake outsourced tasks are highly streamlined. In addition, outsourcing create a viable avenue through which first level IT help desk of the united state is exposed to novel untapped capabilities, expertise, as well as ideas that are found in other locations.  It is a known fact that most companies in the United States spend a considerable amount of money every month to maintain their workstations of help desk. It therefore, follows that outsourcing help desk services to overseas locations present a big advantage to the outsourcing company in the sense that the support efforts involved in maintaining a work station are eliminated. Further, the performance level of the outsourcing company in terms of help desk services improves. It therefore, goes without saying that in the evolution of business change, outsourcing can play a critical role particularly in driving the advances required for such purposes. In all, outsourcing help desk services does not only reduce the cost of labor to the American companies  which undertake to outsource some tasks to overseas locations but also help them in terms of offshore tax advantage that accrues with outsourcing. Outsourcing of the first level help desk services to overseas countries is not without some disadvantages both to the outsourcing company and the country at large.

Since outsourcings involves one firm contracting  another firm for purposes of providing services which may otherwise be carried out by the employees of the contracting company, it therefore, means that several workers from the contracting firm are likely to lose their jobs.  Outsourcing help desk services to overseas locations works as a disadvantage to the United States workers who have to lose there well paying jobs to professionals in the same area of specialty from oversea locations since such professionals are much cheaper to hire and maintain than their American counterparts. As if that is not enough, most of the American companies after outsourcing  first level help desk services to overseas locations  do not see any need of  holding on to their experienced and highly skilled workers. As such, these companies may be at a very high risk of losing their well trained personnel to their competitors. The enormous layoffs that follow outsourcing help desk services by American companies may result to serious financial losses following the payments that ought to be paid to the laid off workers not to mention the fact that the remaining workers may lose motivation to work for the company following the layoff.

Finally, American companies may be at a very high risk as the outsourcing providers from overseas locations may not be able to handle and perform the outsourced desk help services as per the standards and expectations of the American companies (Levy, 2005). The outsourcing company may be faced with challenges such as implementation of projects and delayed communications since the outsourcing company have no direct control over that company that undertakes the outsourced tasks. In addition, there is a possibility of sensitive or confidential information leakage, which may leave the outsourcing company vulnerable and heavily dependent on the company handling outsourced help desk services. It is therefore, important to note that while entering into a contract involving outsourcing help desk services requires precise and clear outline of what is expected from the company and workers handling the help desk services to avoid mistakes which may be very costly.

 

 

 

References

Amiti, M, and Wei, S. (2005). Fear of Service Outsourcing: Is it justified? Economic          Policy, 20:308-347.

Buchanan, L. (2006). The Thinking Man’s Outsourcing. Inc. Magazine, May 2006.

Bunyaratavej, K et al. (2007). International Off shoring of Services: A Parity Study,

            Journal of International Management, 13 (1), 7-21.

Calantone R., and Stanko, M.  (2007). Drivers of Outsourced Innovation: An Exploratory            Study, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 24 (3), 230-241.

Doh, J. (2005). Offshore Outsourcing: Implications for International Business and           Strategic Management Theory and Practice, Journal of Management Studies. 42:     695-704.

Dossani R. and Kenney M. (2004). Offshoring: Determinants of the Location and Value   of Services. Asia-Pacific Research Center, Stanford University.

Henley, J. (2006). Outsourcing the Provision of Software and IT-Enabled Services to      India, International Studies of Management and Organization, 36: 111-131.

Levy, D. (2005). Offshoring in the New Global Political Economy, Journal of          Management Studies, 42(3), 685-693.

Maskell, P et al. (2007). Learning Paths to Offshore Outsourcing: From Cost Reduction             to Knowledge Seeking, Industry & Innovation, 14(3), 239-257.

Mehta, A et al (2006). Challenges and Opportunities of Business Process Outsourcing in India. Journal of Labor Research, 27: 323-338.

 

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Understanding and Interpreting Statutes

Running head: Understanding and Interpreting Statutes

 

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Understanding and Interpreting Statutes

The term Interpretation is used to mean the act of giving something a meaning. The legislative wing of the government is charged with the responsibility of enacting legislations, while the key function of the judiciary is to interpret statutes passed by parliament and give meaning to provisions of such statutes. The general rule of statutory interpretation is that, a statute should be read and interpreted as a whole and not in parts.  It is worth noting, that the main objective of statutory interpretation is to evaluate the intention of the legislature and what such statutes convey either implied or expressed in the words used.

The rules of statutory interpretations are sometimes referred to as cannons of construction, and they include: the literal rule, the golden rule, and the mischief rule. Under the literal rule of interpretation, the words used in a statute are interpreted using their literal meaning. Therefore, the literal rule uses the natural or ordinary meaning of words used in a statute. In addition, the golden rule of statutory interpretation is where words used in a statute are given their literal meaning except in instances where giving them such meaning might  produce an absurdity in the statute. The mischief rule, on the other hand, has its origin from Heydon’s Case of 1584. This case outlined the four key elements to consider while interpreting a statute, these elements include: scrutinize the common law before the Act, identify the mischief that parliament intended to eliminate, identify the remedy decided upon by parliament, and finally, that remedy should be effected.

Even though the mischief rule is cited as the most complex rule, it is the most viable because of the fact that the understanding of a statute is left to the discretion of the court. Under this rule, the court has to examine the intention of the legislature during the time such an Act was legislated, and then , identify the mischief that the legislature intended to eliminate,  after which,  the court must interpret the statute in a manner that give effect to the remedy of that mischief . In the case of Smith V Hughes, (1960) the court used mischief rule to interpret S1 (1) of the Streets Offenses Act 1959.  In this case, the defendant contended that since she had used her apartment and not the street to attract passersby for prostitution purposes, she was not in breach of the section. Court examined what the statute was anticipated to remedy and found that, the intention of the statute  was to clean up the streets as well as to prevent prostitutes from  pestering innocent  individuals . The court therefore, held that the defendant Ms Smith was guilty of the offense.

None of the three rules of statutory interpretations can be considered to be 100 percent consistent. Arguably, all these rules provides the courts with an avenue through which they can be able to interpret statutes for purposes of arriving at the best conclusion of a particular case.

Nonetheless, the mischief rule provides a more comprehensive means of interpretating  statutes, in that, the rule requires the court to examine the intention of the legislature during the time such an Act was legislated, and then, identify the mischief that the legislature intended to eliminate, after which, the court must interpret the statute in a manner that give effect to the remedy of that mischief. While the literal rule, only uses the natural or ordinary meaning of words used in a statute, and, the golden rule gives words their  literal meaning except in instances where giving them such meaning could produce an absurdity in the statute.

References

Heydon. v. R(1584),  [1584] 3 Co Rep 7a, Moore KB 128, 76 ER 637.

Smith. v. Hughes (1960),[1960] 1 WLR 830. 

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Enterprise wide anti-virus and spyware

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Enterprise wide anti-virus and spyware

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Norton antivirus edition sometimes known as Symantec Antivirus Enterprise edition is an antivirus software application that is developed by Symantec Corporation. Its components and network provides solid protection against the incoming spyware and viruses to personal and corporate enterprises sever and networks. It is capable of providing sophisticated enterprise wide virus protection and also single web based console management (Vacca, 2007). This antivirus integrates a reporting capability of a web based graphic for purposes of network administrators. Anti-spyware removes applications, processes or even files that may have been altered during the process of remediation or those that may have been detected previously.

The installation and running of Norton Antivirus and Ant spyware software is quick and occupies minimal hard disk space or memory.  According to Basole installation of the antivirus, however, requires internet connectivity. This is because installation of the software without internet connection might invoke the program to attempt to make a connection in an effort to complete the process of installation (2008). It is worth noting that, for this software to be installed correctly there is a need to disable or any existing antivirus and anti spyware applications and then restart the machine. In addition, any firewalls applications that may be running should be temporally disabled.

According to Baskin & Piltzecker, (2006) the first step of installation is to download the Norton Antivirus software, double click on the installer where a WinZip window opens, click Unzip, click install, click next, read and select “I accept the terms of the license agreement” and then click next, click next to install all the mechanism using the default installation location, select unmanaged, then click next, select Auto Protect if you want the Symantec Antivirus to monitor your system automatically as you work, where there is an active internet connection, select Run Live Update to get the current version of the software, as well as, update the virus definition files during installation, click next, then click on install, where a person selected Run Live Update above, the Live Update program will be automatically launched by the installer, click next to allow  Live Update check with Symantec for the current  virus definitions, and when the update is completed, click finished, disregard any  massage that you receive of Old Virus Definition click close, click finish to complete the process of installation.

The procedure of installing an enterprise wide anti spyware is almost the same as that of installing an enterprise wide antivirus. Any existing anti-spyware software must first be disabled on your computer and then close all the programs that may be running on the computer before installation. The software must be downloaded and than double click on file in the desktop the installation begins and the installation wizard dialogue box appears, double click and skip to step 4, from the installation menu select install, read the welcoming message and then click next the anti-spyware license dialogue appears to display the end user agreement read and click next, enter the license key and click next, select the anti-spyware then click install, and then complete.

The benefits of these applications include; providing an effective enterprise wide anti-spyware and anti-virus protection. The application of the incorporate Symantec tamper guard restrains illicit antivirus attack and access on the network through endeavors from viruses to render network security inoperative in addition to protecting your personal computer against viruses and spyware. Norton Antivirus software scans instant mails and messages to check whether there are any suspicious links, infected attachments and viruses (Parsons & Oja, 2011). The software also scans the common social networks like the facebook news feed to find out   links that lead to dangerous or unsafe sites to download.  Where a person is in the verge of downloading a dangerous application or file, Norton instantly warns the person of the impending threat and danger. In addition to checking applications, files and sights against a database of already known potential threats, the Norton Antivirus software apply behavioral analysis to expose any apprehensive file behavior that could manifest malware to be in the database of notorious threats. The Symantec technology in the Norton Antivirus software enables it to detect brand new threats which are referred to as zero day threats.  With this technology in the Norton application,  all the processes the computer is carrying out are examined and monitoring all the communicating to and from the computer are  monitored to detect any series or pattern of associations  that would fit the profile of Malware (Crayton, 2003).

The sophisticated and unique Anti-spyware protection technology disables completely detected spyware programs on the PC system, rendering them ineffective and harmless to the system. Using comprehensive removal technology, Spy sweeper enterprise wide assures stability of the PC system during and after the process of spyware removal. In addition, they guard and prevent the common spyware entry points, as well as protect the changes to the system memory, host files, registry entries, browser hijacking, startup processes and other settings of security software.  The scanning process of the Anti-spyware is optimized for efficiency and speed. Scanning can be initiated without any interference on the performance of the desktop and in a single operation; the desktop can be disinfected completely (Gibson, 2010).

 

 

 

 

 

References

Parsons, J & Oja, D. (2011).  New Perspectives on Computer Concepts 2012: Comprehensive.      Cengage Learning.

Vacca,  J.(2007). Practical Internet security. Ohio:  Springer.

Basole, R. (2008). Enterprise Mobility: Applications, Technologies and Strategies. IOS Press.

Gibson, D. (2010).  MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Enterprise   Administration. Cengage Learning.

Crayton, C. (2003)  Security+ exam guide. Cengage Learning.

Baskin, B., & Piltzecker, T.(2006). Combating spyware in the enterprise. Syngress.

Harley, D. (2007). AVIEN malware defense guide for the Enterprise. Elsevier.

Parsons,J.,& Oja, D. (2010). New Perspectives on Computer Concepts 2011: Introductory.           Cengage Learning.

Agrawal,  A.(2009). EndNote 1-2-3 easy!: reference management for the professional. Springer.

Cisco Networking Academy. (2010). IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Companion         Guide Cisco Press.

 

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