Part I Grammar A: Sentence Analysis 1. Analyze the following sentences down to word level using the SPOAC model (as shown in the example below): a. “Voting research supports the importance of candidates’ perceived competence and character.” b. “That women are evaluated on the basis of their appearance more often than men has longbeen recognized by researchers.” c. “What does it mean to be objectified?” 2. Account for your analysis of the parts underlined. Example: “I like the pink and yellow umbrella.” [umbrella] is a noun that functions as head of the direct object group that is selected by the verb ‘to like’. [umbrella] is premodified by the compound unit [pink and yellow] and determined by the definite article [the]. a. “Voting research supports the importance of candidates’ perceived competenceandcharacter.” [candidates’]: [and]: b. “That women are evaluated on the basis of their appearance more often than men has longbeen recognized by researchers.” [by researchers]: c. “What does it mean to be objectified?” [it]: B: Answer each question to the point. 1. Indicate the tense and aspect of the underlined predicators and explain their use in the specific example. “Findings from empirical psychology are consistent with these assertions. For example, social psychologists have examinedhuman nature traits—that which people perceive to separate humans from objects and automata (e.g., Haslam et al. 2005, see Haslam 2006 for review). Using U.S. and Australian samples, the researchersfound that the traits people view as fundamental to human nature revolvearound emotions and experiential qualities (e.g., warmth, compassion), and also to include higher level thinking (e.g., creativity and planning) and morality (e.g., sincerity).” Explain the semantic meaning of the modal verbs underlined in the following examples. a. “This chronic monitoring of the self as an observer requires cognitive effort, which in turn, can undermine women’s ability to perform competently.” b. “Objectification theory suggests that the strong emphasis placed on women’s appearance leads them to internalize observers’ perspectives and chronically monitor themselves in terms of how others would evaluate their appearance (Berger1962).” c. “This research suggests that the heavy focus on Sarah Palin’s appearance may have influencedperceptions of her.” 2. Account for the use of passive voice in the following sentence and rewrite the sentence using active voice. “Finally, in a last study, participants were shown video clips of one of two male or two female weather forecasters from local news stations.” 3. Describe the underlined subordinate clauses in terms of structure (finite/nonfinite) and function (nominal/adverbial/modifying) and explain your categorization. a. “The results revealed that participants who were primed to focus on Palin’s appearance reported less likelihood of voting for the McCain-Palin ticket than participants not primed with her appearance.” b. “We (Heflicket al.2010) recently conducted three more studies to further examine the detrimental effects of appearance focus on perceptions of women.” c. “Thus, focusing on Palin’s appearance reduced perceptions of her competence and humanity (perceived warmth and morality were not assessed in this study), which in turn, reduced intentions to vote for McCain.” 4. Classify the underlined pronouns in as much detail as you can. “Indeed, some of her comments (e.g., telling reporters that she was “taken aback” byall the focus on her appearance, Dowd 2008) suggest that she was cognizant of thefocus on, and therefore, she herself focused on, her appearance. However, even if Palin was focused on her appearance more than usual, we cannot becertain that this influenced her performance. Specifically, as far as we know, it has yetto be tested if women who have expertise in an area (e.g., public speeches), or whoare used to being public figures, are as hindered by focusing on their own appearanceas other women whenperforming a task.” 5. Account for the use of the words underlined. a. “Further, in terms of trustworthiness, people typically vote for who they feel has the best moral character (e.g., honest; Bishin et al. 2006). Not surprisingly, there also is evidence that people’s voting is highly influenced by perceptions of the candidate’s moral values (e.g., Cislak and Wojciszke 2006).” b. “Findings from empirical psychology are consistent with these assertions.” c. “Thus, it appears that reduced perceptions of competence and character do influence voting behavior.”

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