a. A device using pneumatics.
b. A theoretical model for the transmission of sound.
c. An explanation for the movement of an arrow.
d. A way of accounting for wind without resort to deities.
2. (Lecture 18) Which of the following was set up by Ptolemy I, king of Egypt?
a. The Library of Alexandria
b. The Academy at Athens
c. The Lyceum at Athens
d. The Great Pyramid at Giza
3. (Lecture 19) Which of the following contributed to the rejection of the heliocentric model of Aristarchus of Samos?
a. It was offensive to the gods.
b. It predicted parallax which could not be observed.
c. It could not explain why Mercury and Venus stayed close to the Sun.
d. It could not explain the changing brightness of Mars.
4. (Lecture 19) Which of the following is NOT included in Ptolemy’s model of the solar system?
c. eccentric epicycles
d. nested spheres
5. (Lecture 20) Anaximines claimed that the flat disk of the Earth was in the middle of a cosmos filled with air. But then how did the Earth stay in its place?
a. It floated on the ocean.
b. It was supported on pillars of bronze.
c. It was so wide that the air underneath it held it up. d. It was in its natural place.
6. (Lecture 20) Eventually philosophers decided that the lowest point in the Cosmos was the center of the Cosmos and that everything was attracted to that point. But, denser objects push lighter ones out of the way. What phenomenon did this NOT explain?
a. The Earth is a sphere.
b. The Earth and the things on it are layered.
c. There are volcanoes some places on Earth but not in others.
d. The oceans sit on the Earth without falling over the edge.
7. (Lecture 21) When Augustine referred to quicklime as hot what was he referring to?
d. It burns your hand when you pick it up.
b. It shows a high temperature on a thermometer. c. When you put some into oil it sets the oil on fire. d. It gives off radioactivity.
8. (Lecture 21) Aristotle believed that something called the visual flux flowed out of eye, bounced off objects, and then returned to the eye, and that this was the basis of eyesight. How did he explain the fact that it gets dark outside at night?
a. The Sun is not in the sky.
b. The eye puts out less visual flux at night.
c. Fewer people are active at night so there is less visual flux about.
d. Night air is opaque because nights are cooler.
Section 2: Ancient texts. 1 mark per question for multiple-choice. 4 marks for the essay question.
Document 1: Herodotus Histories 4.42 (6th C. BC)
Africa is washed on all sides by the sea except where it joins Asia, as was first demonstrated, so far as our knowledge goes, by the Egyptian king Necho II, who … sent out a fleet manned by a Phoenician crew with orders to sail around Africa and return to Egypt and the Mediterranean by way of the Straits of
Gibraltar. The Phoenicians sailed from the Arabian gulf into the southern ocean, and every autumn put in at some convenient spot on the African coast, sowed a patch of ground, and waited for next year’s harvest. Then, having got in their grain, they put to sea again, and after two full years rounded the Rock of Gibraltar in the course of the third year, and returned to Egypt. These men made a statement which I do not myself believe, though others may, to the effect that as they sailed on a westerly course round the southern end of Africa, they had the sun on their right – to northward of them. This is how [Southern] Africa was first explored by sea.
9. How long did it take the expedition to make the voyage around Africa? a. More than one year but less than two years.
b. More than two years but less than three years.
c. More than three years but less than four years.
d. More than four years.
10. How did the expedition feed itself on the voyage?
a. They brought precious metals to buy food along the way. b. They brought grain and grew a new crop each year.
c. They brought enough food on board their ships.
d. They supplemented their food with fish from the sea.
Document 2: Strabo Geography 1.8 (1st C. BC 1st C. AD)
We may learn both from the evidence of our senses and from experience that the inhabited world is an island; for wherever it has been possible for man to reach the limits of the earth, sea has been found, and this sea we call “Oceanus.” And wherever we have not been able to learn by the evidence of our sense, there reason points the way. For example, as to the eastern side of the inhabited earth (India), and the western side (Spain and Morocco), one may sail wholly around them and continue the voyage for a considerable distance along the northern and southern regions; and as for the rest of the distance around the inhabited earth which has not been visited by us up to the present time (because of the fact that the navigators who sailed in opposite directions towards each other never met), it is not of very great extent, if we reckon from the parallel distances that have been traversed by us. It is unlikely that the Atlantic Ocean is divided into two seas, thus being separated by isthmuses so narrow and that prevent the circumnavigation; it is more likely that it is one confluent and continuous sea. For those who undertook circumnavigation, and turned back without having
achieved their purpose, say that they were made to turn back, not because of any continent that stood in their way and hindered their further advance, inasmuch as the sea still continued open as before, but because of their destitution and loneliness. This theory accords better, too, with the behaviour of the ocean, that, in respect of the ebb and flow of the tides; everywhere, at all events, the same principle, or else one that does not vary much, accounts for the changes both of high tide and low tide, as would be the case if their movements were produced by one sea and were the result of one cause. [my emphasis]
11. What does this passage tell us about attempts to circumnavigate the world, as far as Strabo knows?
a. The world had been successfully circumnavigated.
b. Attempts had been made but they were unsuccessful. c. Nobody had even tried to circumnavigate the world. d. It does not tell us anything.
12. Which of the following arguments does Strabo NOT make against the belief that there is a continent in the ocean between Europe and Asia (travelling West from Europe)?
a. That no explorer has reported such a continent.
b. That the ocean is too narrow for such a continent, unless it was very narrow. c. That the tides on shores facing that ocean all behave similarly.
d. That explorers had never arrived in Europe from such a continent.
Document 3: Lucretius On the Nature of the Universe 4.555-575 (1st C. BC)
The sun cannot be either much larger or much smaller than it appears to our senses. So long as fires are near enough both to transmit their light and to breathe a warm blast upon our bodies, the bulk of their flames suffers no loss through distance: the fire is not visibly diminished. Since the heat of the sun and the light it gives off travel all the way to [Earth] its shape and size must also appear as they really are. … The moon also … is not bigger than it appears to our eyes. For objects seen at a distance through a thick screen of air appear blurred in outline before they are diminished in bulk. It follows that the moon, which presents a sharp outline and a precise shape, must appear to us up there just as it is, with its limits truly defined and its actual dimensions.
13. Summarize and criticize the argument in Document 3. If you have trouble understanding the argument you may consult external sources, but as always for these assignments I am interested in what you have to say. (400 words max)
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