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Question one

In determining the age, sex and size of a person skeleton, forensic anthropologist will examine the bone structure or the microscopic bone structure (UC Santa Cruz, n.d). In determining the sex of a skeleton, the pubic bone of the pelvis is used. Furthermore, long bones, characteristics of scrum and the long bones are investigated in determining sex amongst adult. On the other hand, juveniles and infants identification of sex is complex because they lack secondary sex characteristics since they have not reached adolescent, but the process is the same.

Age of a skeleton is determined through investigation of its general conditions such as osteoporosis, lipping of the vertebral bodies and presence of arthritis. In teenagers, epiphyseal (growth) plate fusion of the skeleton patterns and eruption of teeth are used (UC Santa Cruz, n.d).

Among adults, there size is estimated by the length of long bone and extrapolating the measurements in estimating of their heights. In most cases, the size of teenagers is not accurate because they are not fully grown (UC Santa Cruz, n.d). On the other hand, weight of a person Skelton can be approximated by examining the thickness of bones. For instance, a skeleton that has no growth plates in its long pelvis, has wide pelvis, has minimal wear on its joints, short and thin bones may indicate a young and mature woman.

Question two

The diagnosis of the child was osteoporosis. Even though, it is common disease amongst adults above 50 years, the symptoms of the child show those of osteoporosis. The bones of the child are tenders and have deformities in the pelvic and cranial bones.

The treatment of the disease includes provision of diet that is rich in calcium. Calcium is recommended because it will help in stopping bone loss and in providing enough materials that the body uses to form bones (PubMed Health, 2010, para. 10). Vitamins D and proteins should equally be included in the diet. Example of foods that the child should be feed includes cheese, ice cream, salmon, yoghurt and many others.  Natural treatment options are also available such as exercise. The child should engage in frequent exercises such as jogging, walking, use of rowing machines and even bicycle riding. This exercise will help to strengthen the pelvic bones and help the child to recover from the situation.

Review on osteoporosis

In the article, Osteoporosis in men’, By Gretchen, the study is based on people as subjects. The study investigates the osteoporosis in men and achieves this by studying a 71 old elderly man with the disease (Gretchen, 2011, p. 72). The sample was selected randomly. The study is limited and the period of investigation is short. The methodology used in gathering information is observation and interview. The participant’s behaviors were observed such as smoking. Furthermore, investigation of his prior behaviors such as eating and exercises were brought into limelight. The interview helped soliciting important information about the lifestyle of the individual hence helping in making findings.

The study results showed that most cases of osteoporosis are not treated until the situation becomes severe. This is attributed to the limitation or inaccessibility of accepted screening guidelines. His conclusion is that there are various risk factors for the disease including, age, body habits, race, tobacco abuse, and family history of fractures (Gretchen, 2011, p. 72). Therefore, there is need to educate the public on this disease in order to enable them seek treatment and for screening early before it becomes out of hand. The results are authentic and true because, the sample size chosen had most of the complications associated with the disease. This study is different from other because it had few sample size but still managed to provide sufficient information. Therefore, the researcher could have increased a sizeable sample to ensure to make his results more authentic.

In Jeane and Katherine research, they investigated people over the age of 50 years. Subject was selected randomly from different databases and literature reviews. The length of study was short. The methodology used in the study included computerized literature searches from database and academic search premier of people above 50 years (Jeane, & Katherine, 2011, p. 1). The results showed that few men were aware of the disease and the risks that the diseases posed. The conclusion is that, education on the risk of the disease should be identified.  The study is different from other since it based its research on computerized searches as most studies use questionnaires and interviews. However, it is credible since authoritative sources of information were used. Nevertheless, further research needs to be done through validated instruments.

Brian and Syamal studied on how the osteoporosis can be managed in elderly people.  There study was based on empirical study and therefore descriptive. From their investigations and study, they postulate that men have been ignored compared to women when it comes to screening and treatment of osteoporosis.  The consequences of the disease is rife for both men and women and therefore quick measures need to be put in place to ensure that men are also well taken care of. Fracture prevention is one of the areas that men are not well treatment and therefore presents health risk (Brian, & Shyamal, 2011, p. 113). However, even though there is inadequate studies on how the disease affects men, further researches need to be conducted to provide a clear understanding of this disease.



Brian, J, & Shyamal, D. (2011).Management of osteoporosis in elderly men, Maturitas,      69(2):113-119.

Gretchen, M. (2011). Osteoporosis in men, Journal of Men’s Health, 8(1):72-82.

Jeane, M., & Katherine, A. (2011). Older men’s knowledge about osteoporosis and educational    interventions to increase osteoporosis knowledge in older men: A systematic review,           Maturitas, 68(1):5-12.

PubMed Health, (2010). U.S National Library of Medicine: Osteoporosis. Retrieved from             http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001400/

UC Santa Cruz, (n.d). Physical Anthropology: Forensic osteological investigations laboratory.      Retrieved from http://foil.ucsc.edu/WhatWeDo.htm

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