changing attitudes towards marriage in Africa and Europe

Overall structure: Your dissertation must follow APA style format. It should not have multiple chapters with introduction in each chapter. It should consist of 1 introduction section (which includes introduction paragraphs, literature review, and hypotheses), Method section (participants, materials, and procedure subsections), Results section (test results with Tables and Figures), and  Discussion section (summary of findings, interpretations, conclusions, limitations, and future directions).  Please look at any psychological empirical paper published in psychological journals.


Introduction section: Right now, your method section contents actually starts from p33 (participants), and 28/43 pages are dedicated to the Introduction, which is far too long. You need to focus and be selective about the information you provide in the Introduction.  Based on the literature review (theories, past findings), summarize what we know to this date, what we still do not know, and clearly state what you need to find out in your present study (purposes). Also based on the past literature, present your hypotheses at the very end of your introduction section. Right now, the connection between the literature review and the purpose of the present study as well as the connection between the literature review and your hypotheses are not clear (partly because your hypotheses are presented far before your literature review). Also, present the hypotheses you are predicting only (not both null hypotheses and alternative hypotheses), and make sure that they are statistically testable. For example, H2 should be like“Younger people (age xx-xx) are more xxxx than older people (age xx-xx).”  H3 says Monogamy is widely accepted, but this is not testable because you really cannot statistically test whether it is “widely accepted” or not without comparison. Also avoid using causal statements such as H4 “Divorce rates are high xxx MAKING people have negative attitudes …” where you are not experimentally manipulating the divorce rates. –This is the same for H6 “due to colonization, urbanization, and modernization in Africa” where you are not manipulating these valuables.


Method section: Again please look at any empirical journal articles to see how psychologists write their method sections. You do not need to write what surveys are or questionnaires are for. In participants subsection, you at least need to report the numbers, means and SDs of age, gender, etc for each cultural group (and test results to see if there are any group differences). In the material subsection, you need to inform the readers what you measured with what assessment tool. I recall that you used  Peters’s Marriage Belief Inventory (1984). Then please report it as the example I provide here. For example, if a researcher measured self-esteem, she/he may say, “participants’ self-esteem was measured by Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1966), which consists of 10 items (e.g., “On the whole, I am satisfied with myself.”). For each item, participants were asked to respond on 4-point Likert scale (1=Strongly disagree, 4=Strongly agree). The Cropbach’s alpha for this scale was .78, thus the reliability was considered as acceptable.”


Results: Any scale, such as Rosenberg Self-esteem scale or The Peters’s Marriage Belief Inventory, are used to measure one variable with multiple items (unless the scale is bidirectional or multidimentional). Thus, as I have already pointed out in the comments I provided for your first dissertation, one does not conduct a statistical test on each item. Researchers compute the mean score (or total score) of the consisting items and conduct statistical tests with that score. You are testing on each item, which is a very unusual way to handle the scale items, and if that is what you really want to and need to do, please provide rationale for doing it. Also again, please look at any psychological empirical papers to see how they report their results. Right now, you are not reporting enough inferential statistics (except a few t-tests).


Tables/Figures: They should be in APA format, and should not be included in appendix.



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