Please answear each question within 3-4sentences. Also write the question and answear only please in the order it has been givin. Thank you!Modern Egypt, by the Earl of Cromer
This piece looks long but the font size is huge and should be an easy read. Evelyn Baring, the Earl of Cromer, was Consul-General of Egypt, 1883 to 1907, after Britain colonized Egypt. In this piece, he describes the people under his charge, and much can be learned about how he viewed the Egyptians and his own place among them.
“Khedive” refers to the king of Egypt. The descendants of our friend Muhammad ‘Ali took the title and eventually the Ottoman Sultan was just forced to accept that.
“Copts” refers to Egyptian Christians, the second-largest religious group in the country after Muslims.
2) How does Cromer talk about race, and how might that inform his thinking about the administration of Egypt?
3) What signs are in this piece that show Cromer is truly an “Enlightenment man?”
Report of Roger Casement, British Consul, on the Administration of the Congo Free State
King Leopold of Belgium colonized the Congo in 1885 through a series of shell associations like the International African Association, which posed as humanitarian aid organizations and hid the nature of Leopold’s holdings. By 1904, rumors had begun to come out of the region that perhaps things were not as they seemed in the Congo (for instance, clerks noted that the International African Association seemed only to export guns to the Congo, and imported from them a steady, high volume of rubber). The British Foreign Service dispatched a consul, Roger Casement, to investigate the situation in the Congo for himself.
1) How does Casement describe the villages he has investigated?
2) To what does Casement attribute the state of affairs for the Congolese people?
1) What is Futurism? What does it embrace about the modern world?
2) What is Dadaism? What kind of feelings do you think it might be born out of?
1) Who are the forces aligning against the Czar of Russia? What are their grievances? What are their ideologies?
2) Who are the forces aligning with the Czar? Why are they defending the regime? Who are their targets/enemies?
Hannah Arendt was a philosopher of government and history, most famous for her influential work concerning “the banality of evil.” The selection I’ve assigned is from her book The Origins of Totalitarianism, which examines authoritarian movements in general and the Nazi movement in particular. In this selection she examines the use of propaganda and terror by “totalitarians” to gain the support (or at least acquiescence) of the masses.
Aime Cesaire was an a theorist and writer of the Negritude movement in the African diaspora, politically active in the French colony of Martinique and particularly influential in the French-speaking world. His Discourse on Colonialism was written in response to World War II and the decolonization wave that followed that war.
As you read these pieces, consider the following questions:
1. Mussolini claims that fascism is “revolutionary” – is it? Why might someone consider fascism revolutionary and why might they not?
2. Both Mussolini and Arendt use the word “totalitarianism” to describe what I’ve terms “solid-modern authoritarianisms.” The concept of totalitarianism is analytically problematic and many historians find it unhelpful. What do each of these authors mean by “totalitarian”? Do you find it a useful category of analysis?
3. According to Arendt, what is the role of “science” and logic in totalitarian propaganda?
4. In Cesaire’s estimation, why is Europe “indefensible”? Why did Europeans find Hitler to be so extreme and evil?
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