read the articles and answer the three questions.

1) What is Adorno’s normative position towards art? Towards popular culture? How does Adorno use Marx’s concept of fetishism of commodities? Lukács definition of reification? Why is Adorno a critical theorist? Explain using several different ways to define critical theory and using the chart in class. Give some examples from Adorno’s reading.

2) How does Turner characterize the major contributions of Habermas? According to Turner, how does Habermas fit into what he defines as Critical Theory? What does Habermas draw from Marx and Weber, and how does he extend their ideas?

3) According to Habermas, are student apolitical? When do they protest? Are the students using interaction or communicative rationality? How? What is the relation between science and politics? Use examples from the reading by Habermas. Is Habermas a critical theorist? Why or why not? As in Question 1), consider different definitions of critical theory, the chart from class, and give some examples from the text. What are some similarities and differences between Adorno and Habermas? Adorno and Marcuse? Habermas and Marcuse? (For these all of the comparisons, first think about how the authors address the topics we have discussed and then
compare them: being/consciousness, subject/object, commodities, popular culture and media, critical theory, reification, science/literature, art, work/labor, Weber, Marx, other analytic concepts on the homeworks….).

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