Organizational behavior




Date of submission:

Organizational behavior

            In his book, Leadership and motivation: the fifth rule and the eight key principles of motivating others 2007, Adair (8) explores the subject Organizational behavioral in depth. In his research, the author discusses the eight key principles that motivate others in the organization. These include, giving recognition, providing fair rewards, creating a pleasing working environment, setting realistic goals and talents, and treating everyone equally. Others include selecting people are self-motivated or motivation that comes from within an individual. In facts, the book is incredible for it highlight important considerations for public sector, commerce, and captains of industry to regard what contributes to the success of the organizations. At this point, Adair (46) explore the subject of leadership by reassign theories of Maslow and Herzberg, which are substantial contributors to the understanding of motivation. The central theme of this book is the eight key principles that motivate others and increase productivity. Following this, the aim of this paper is to discuss leadership and motivation, which Adair reassesses through Maslow and Herzberg theories. In doing, I will discuss how these are the principal contributors to Adair’s understanding of the eight key principles.

In 1959, studies document that; Herzberg Fredrick proposed the two-factor theory of motivation (Adair 45). According to Herzberg theory, various job factors result in motivation and satisfaction while others results to dissatisfaction. Adair classified the job factors into two categories; hygiene and motivation factors. According to Herzberg theory, hygiene factors are job factors that essentially create motivation at the workplace though they do not cause long-term satisfaction. In other words, these factors create a pleasing environment that augments motivation and satisfaction. In the eight key principle of motivating others, Adair highlights some of the hygiene factors as per Herzberg theory. These include reasonable and appropriate salary or pay structure, which should be equal to those in the same domain and industry, and pleasing working conditions that eventually creates motivation. Typically, the motivation factors yield a positive satisfaction. In other words, these factors motivate employees to be involved in superior working performance. From Adar eight principles of motivating others, motivational factors include employee recognition, which the management team should put into consideration. Employees should have a sense of achievement achieved from progress. In this context, Adar points out that, there should be advancement and growth opportunities in the organization to motivate employees to perform effectively. The Work itself should be interesting, meaningful, and yet challenging employees to be motivated and perform effectively. Lastly, as per Herzberg’s motivational factors, Adar argues that, Managers should recognize and praise their employees for their good work, which in turn, motivates them to achieve more. Adar (45) continues to affirm that, the two-factor theory by Herzberg implies that, managers should provide hygiene factors at the workplace to augment employee satisfaction. In addition, they should ensure that the work is rewarding and stimulating so that employees may be motivated to perform and work better and harder. To this point, it stands out that, Herzberg theory emphasizes upon job enrichment that motivates employees and eventually improves work quality.

The book continues to reassesses the theory of Maslow in the context of action-centered leadership. Abraham Maslow first introduced the concept of hierarchy needs in 1943 (Adar 59). Abraham developed a theory, in which he categorized how needs should be prioritized. In great insights, Maslow theory outlines that, low-level needs such as safety and physiological requirements must be satisfied before higher levels of needs such as self-fulfillment. In this context, when a need is most satisfied, it no longer motivates, and in turn, the subsequent need takes its place. As indicated in the book, the Maslow’s Hierarchy need is as shown in the following diagram.


According to Maslow’s theory, Physiological needs are required to sustain life. They include water, sleep, nourishment, and adequate air. This theory affirms that; esteem and social needs are unfelt until an individual meets physiological needs for bodily functioning. Once an individual meets the physiological needs, one’s attention turns to security and safety to free from emotional harm and physical threats. Adar assert that, such needs might be fulfilled by job security, financial reserves, and living in a pleasing environment. Once one meets the safety and physiological needs, the higher level needs grasp attention. The Social needs relates to interaction with others, which in turn, create a sense of belonging. Once an individual achieves a sense of belonging, the need of feeling indispensable arises. In this model, esteems include recognition, attention, self-respect, reputation, and achievement. Self-actualization is the peak of Maslow’s model, which has needs such as Justice, wisdom, truth, and meaning. From Maslow’s model, Adar holds momentous implications for the management. First, he outlines the need to motivate employees through job design, management style, and compensation packages. He categorizes the hierarchy needs into the following principles. First, the psychological needs include providing rest breaks, lunch breaks, and sufficient wages. Secondly, the safety needs provides retirement benefits, a safe working environment, and job security. Thirdly, social needs create a sense of belonging through social events and esteem needs obligates recognizing achievements to make employees feel valued and appreciated. Self-actualization obligates the need to provide employees with challenges and opportunities to attain their carrier potential.

Adair (19) summarizes his thoughts by stating that, exemplary leaders should command the three main areas that revolve the Action Centered Model that entails; being able to do all things, keep the right balance, achieve results, builds morale, develop team and increase productivity, and improves quality. A manager should identify visions and aims for the organization and define the task initiated. He should make realistic goals that motivate employees to work towards the company’s growth. He should identify competent people, adequate resources, and tools that increase the company’s reputation and growth. It is essential, for every leader to design the plan to achieve the task and tactics that augments success. A manager should motivate employees to work towards a common goal for overall progress of the company. It is paramount for a leader to recognize and reward reasonable effort, which in turn, motivates employees to work harder and better. Typically, the management team should develop, identify, and utilizes individual’s strengths and capabilities. Lastly, it is essential for leaders to possess significant management skills. Adair uses this concept to emphasize that, leadership is the ancient ability of deciding direction. Adair highlights a core list of effective leaders; energetic, enthusiastic, warm, calm in a predicament, and tough though fair. For Adair point of view, there are differences between management and leadership in the industry. In his concept, management involves administering proficient resources to create a pleasing working environment and increase productivity while leadership entails is the process of influence. The author continues to argue that, leadership skills are crucial ingredients in management. A leader should exemplify excellent character and personality in the working group. Without these, one will lack credibility, which may deteriorate work performance. This book is most distinguished in the field of leadership studies whereby the author explores the subject of organizational behavior.


            To this point, the paper has discussed Adair’s work in his insightful book. As discussed in the essay, the central theme of the book is the eight key principles that motivate employees and increase productivity. In doing this, Adair combines this concept with Maslow and Herzberg theories. The two theories affirm that; there should be growth opportunities in the organization to motivate employees to perform effectively. The Work should be appealing, meaningful, and challenging for employees to perform effectively. Managers should recognize and praise their employees for their outstanding work, which in turn, motivates them to achieve more. From the two theories, the eight key principles of motivating others include the following; treating everyone equally, giving recognitions creating a pleasing working environment, and setting realistic goals and targets. Others include selecting competent people, and remembering that progress and achievements motivates employees to work harder and smarter. This book concludes that, a manager should motivate employees to work towards a common goal and reward good effort, which in turn, motivates employees to work harder and better.












Work cited

Adair, John. Leadership and motivation: the fifty-fifty rule and the eight key principles of     motivating others. London: Kogan Page Publishers, 2007. Print

Use the order calculator below and get started! Contact our live support team for any assistance or inquiry.