Immigrant struggles, Immigrant Gifts By Diane Portnoy, Barry Portnoy and Charlie? Italian Americans (begins on p. 55) o When did the term Mafia first come into common usage?

o Why have Italians persistently been identified with organized crime? o How have negative stereotypes of Italian immigrants affected American perceptions of them? o Why are Christopher Columbus, John Cabot, and Amerigo Vespucci important to ItalianAmerican history? o What were the differences between early (pre-1880s) and later Italian immigrants? o What were the Push and Pull factors related to post-1880 Italian immigration? o What were the positive and negative roles of the Padroni for new immigrants? o How did Remittances relate to the Italian Immigration Process? o Where did Italian immigrants settle during the major period of Italian immigration? o In what occupations were Italian immigrants concentrated? o Why did most Italians settle in urban areas rather than rural farming areas? o Describe the factions related to Italys regions that characterized Italian immigrants. How did the presence of these factions affect Italian immigrants in America? o Why was the Catholic Church less important to early Italian immigrants than to later Italian immigrants? o What facilitated the assimilation process for 2nd generation Italian Americans? o What prejudices did Italian Americans endure o What was the perceived relationship between immigrants and alcohol? ? Eastern Europeans Americans (begins on p. 97) o In which areas did most Eastern European immigrants settle? o In which occupations were Eastern European immigrants concentrated? o What problems did high rates of return migration cause for Slavic immigrants? o What role did Eastern Europeans play in the labor movement? o What role did Henry Cabot Lodge play in the immigration debate? o What were the stereotypes ascribed to Eastern European/ Slavic immigrants? o Despite the prejudice they endured, what advantage did Eastern European immigrant groups have over African Americans and Asian Americans? o How and why did Jewish-American enlistment during World War II improve relationships between Jewish and Christian Americans? o What injustices were Jewish veterans unwilling to tolerate after WWII? o What was the role of Jews in the Civil Rights Movement? ? Jewish Americans o Describe Henry Fords campaign against the Jews. o How were the Russian Revolution and Jews linked in the minds of some Americans? o Even as Jews were depicted as radical communists, they were also tagged as rapacious capitalists, how does this quote from the chapter illustrate the difficulties faced by Jews in America? o What were the prejudices and stereotypes many Americans held against the Jews? o What were the Push factors for European and Russian Jews? o What were the fundamental differences between the Jewish and Christian faiths? o What was the Jewish settlement pattern in the U.S. after 1840? o Toward which occupations did Jews gravitate? o In what ways was Jewish economic success unable to shield Jews from discrimination? o In what ways were Jews better off than Asian and African Americans? o What illustration did Professor Horace Kallen provide to explain his idea of America as cultural pluralist rather than a melting-pot society? o What were the differences between Jewish socialists and Zionists? o Why did established German-Jewish Americans resent newly arrived Jews from Eastern Europe and Russia? o How did Jewish women contribute to the household economy? o What have been some key contributions to American society made by Jews? Immigration: A Documentary and Reference Guide, Chapter 3 ? What were the characteristics of most immigrants who came to America between 1880 and 1920? ? What was the percent of foreign-born Americans in 1910? ? What was the percent of foreign-born and children of foreign-born Americans in Americas 12 largest cities? ? What distinctions did the Dillingham Commission Report draw between the old and new immigrants?

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