Your answer should be half to one page for questions APA style writing.
3. Discuss how and where hydrothermal vents or “black smokers” are formed, the process of metal sulfide formation, and how they are associated with unusual life forms that live in the absence of sunlight. Be sure to mention a few interesting life forms found there as well as their adaptations to the harsh, extreme environment.

4. The Gulf Stream is famous for producing turbulent rings, or eddies. Explain how the rings form, and briefly highlight differences between warm and cold core rings. For assistance, please see textbook, page 177, or visit:
o Classic CZCS Scenes: Gulf Stream Rings. Chapter 7: Gulf Stream Rings. NASA website. Retrieved from

5. Explain why anticyclones rotate clockwise and cyclones rotate counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, and why the opposite is true for the Southern Hemisphere. Please consult your textbook, page 158–163. Be sure to mention the Coriolis Effect in your answer.

Your answer should be 1–2 pages long. Please cite all sources according to APA format.

6. Unknown before 1977, hydrothermal vents, also known as “black smokers,” represent a unique environment on our planet. Take a stance of either supporting future exploration and research or calling for protection of this ecosystem. Consider if the mineral wealth associated with “black smokers” should be exploited, or should such a unique ecological environment be conserved? Think about the future in terms of building an argument to environmentally protect “black smoker” ecosystems or allow for exploration, research, possible mining, a potential food source, and tourism.

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