Did the civilized tribes survive removal during the 1830s? If not, why did their civilizing effort prove to be futile?

n chapter 6, the Civilization Program was discussed. In return for ceding their lands to the United States, the tribes were given annuity (yearly) payments as compensation. With regard to land still under Native American control, the government sought to “civilize” the indigenous tribes, essentially making European-style farmers out of tribe members. This last effort met with some success among the Cherokee and Creek tribes, among others. What message did their fate send to tribes further West in the path of white American expansion? The book for this class is: First Americans A History of Native Americans By Kenneth W. Townsend and Mark Nicholas

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