crisis mangement

HUM 3355 Identifying Deductive Errors Assignment


You need this book


Facione, Peter &Gittens, Carol (2013). Think critically (2nd ed.). Pearson Education.





Complete and submit this document to the drop box provided for the assignment. Include your name in the name of your file.



Part A: Identify The Type Of Argument


You have learned about deductive arguments in earlier modules and now you have focused on inductive and abductive arguments. One of the most important skills related to dealing with these different types of arguments is, first being able to determine what kind of argument one is dealing with. It is only after identifying the kind of argument that is present that you can then choose the appropriate tools to evaluate the argument. Consider the following passages. Identify the passage as either a deductive, inductive, or adductive passage. In a paragraph or two indicate reasons that support your claim. Each passage is worth ten (10) marks.


1.    In most recorded cases that a Taser weapon has been discharged the person receiving the electric current was immobilized without any kind of permanent health damage done to them. So we can conclude that the Taser weapon’s current safety record shall continue.



2.    If our department wants to switch over to digital encrypted radio systems to keep criminals from listening in on police activity the department will purchase new radio equipment. The Chief reported to us just last week that switching to encrypted radio is the department’s top focus right now. Looks like we are getting new radios.



3.    In recent years changes in the law have allowed for an increased use of conditional sentencing. The increased use of conditional sentencing has had a significant impact; many more first-time offenders do not re-offend. It stands to reason that the authorities should apply even more conditional sentencing; then recidivism rates will lower even more.



4.    Well, we have a dead body on the other side of this cliff with a massive injury to the head. Perhaps the person was walking along the base of the cliff and hit his head on something by accident and he died. Or maybe he hit his head on something above the cliff and then fell over the cliff. Then again, maybe someone struck the person in the head with a heavy object and the person fell over the cliff. In our search of the area so far we found no traces of blood or fresh footprints at the top of the cliff. Unless we find any other evidence to the contrary, whatever happened to the person likely happened while he was already down at the bottom of the cliff.




Part B: Analyzing Comparative Inferences


The following passages contain comparative inferences, also known as argument by analogy. Each analogy is faulty. Read each passage carefully. Your textbook identifies five (5) criteria for evaluating analogies: familiarity, simplicity, comprehensiveness, productivity, and testability. In a paragraph or two identify which characteristic of comparative inferences the passage is failing at. Explain how the passage is not meeting that criteria and suggest a way the passage could be improved.Each passage is worth ten (10) marks.


5.    Police work is like doing quantum mechanics; the particles and perpetrators you deal with are elusive!



6.    Driving a police vehicle in a high-speed chase is simple: you need to be as fast as a Formula 1 driver, be able to look all around you like an owl, and be able to react faster than a boxer going for the title.



7.    Police officers are like guardian angels watching over the good people of the land, protecting them from danger.




Part C: Evaluating Generalizations


Inductive Generalizations (or Enumerative Inductions) must follow several criteria in order for us to be able to rely on their conclusions. Inductions must also be free of fallacies for us to rationally consider them. Read the following passages and in two paragraphs evaluate the quality of the inductions. You may comment on any fallacies present, problems with samples, or populations, etc. You may also comment on good features of the argument as well. Each passage is worth ten (10) marks.


8.    Of approximately 70,000 Police Officers in Canada, 30,000 Officers from all across Canada responded to a survey. The survey asked if they support the existence of a federal firearms registry for non-restricted firearms. An overwhelming 78% of respondents said they do support the existence of a federal firearms registry for non-restricted firearms. This definitively shows that the majority of Canadians do in fact support the existence of a federal firearms registry for non-restricted firearms.



9.    I am a Correctional Officer in Canada and I feel that solitary confinement does not work for controlling violent inmates. I asked two of my friends who are also Correctional Officers and they feel the same way. Clearly solitary confinement just does not work in Canada.



10.  Of a survey of Canadians that went to all provinces and territories via Canada Post, thousands of responses were collected. About 50.8% of respondents said they supported the work of Drug Treatment Courts which specialize in treating drug-dependent offenders without the use of incarceration. We can conclude that most Canadians then support the work of Drug Treatment Courts.



11.  Isn’t it amazing! We get a new Chief of Police and in just two weeks crime is down 30%. That new Chief does amazing work!



12.  I wondered if prison gangs really are a growing problem in Canada so I checked the statistics in my province. Sure enough over the last decade the numbers of inmates who are associated with a prison gang has nearly doubled. I checked two other provinces as well. The first province showed a near doubling of inmates in gangs as well over the same time period, supporting my theory. The second province showed a decrease in the number of inmates associated with gangs but I bet they must have done something wrong in getting their numbers. My research confirms that prison gangs are on the rise right across Canada.



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