African issue (writers choice) compared between two countries or regions in Africa. Possible topics given (such as wildlife conservation, religion, economics, disease)
Must be cogent but very easily graded- no more than $100

Explain an issue in Africa that describes the interactions between different geographical concepts – physical features, climate, history, politics and geo-politics, policy, global issues and so on.

Please compare two countries / regions of Africa.

Please cite your references in the text and include a bibliography: minimum 10 references (book, journal, magazine, website).

Possible topics:
1. How does the physical geography of Africa (landforms, climate, soil, ecosystems) help to explain current economic and political conditions in (a) Nigeria and one of its neighbors (b) the great Lakes region (c) southern Africa.

2. Explain how the evolution of man’s occupation of Africa is related to (a) the settlement of southern Africa or (b) the complexity of different people and livelihood approaches in East Africa or (c) livelihoods and conflicts in West Africa.

3. How did Islamic and European influences affect the way Africa is today?

4. Africa is renowned for its wildlife. Describe the two major approaches to wildlife conservation in Africa, and explain what you would do if you were responsible for wildlife conservation?

5. Describe how different agricultural farming systems are related to Africa’s ecology and climatic conditions. What are desertification and deforestation, and describe how they fit into this picture. Suggest how these problems might be addressed.

6. How do women in Africa play a major role in managing natural resources? Include day-to-day tasks that make women daily managers of the environment and also their participation in commercial sectors, and use of raw materials in your discussion. In examining the relationships between women and their natural surroundings, how do women deal with the
environmental crises they face? What is women’s role in restoring the environment?

7. Propose a development project that tackles a real environmental problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. Provide a historical context describing how this issue has evolved in the region over time. You may use a timeline as a figure in your essay, but must also include a description
of these events in the essay itself. Describe the issue and account for the environmental, social, and cultural circumstances of the issue and region you are addressing. How are governmental and international agencies responding to this problem?

8. Pick a major disease prevalent in Africa. Describe how it is transmitted and which regions are most affected. What environmental, social, cultural factors affect the spread of this disease? How is the health care system (international, regional, governmental) addressing
the problem? How does technology relate to heath care for this particular disease? Are there traditional medicine options? What are the strengths and weaknesses of traditional medicine in this context?

9. What determines urban population growth in Sub-Saharan Africa? What are the linkages between urban and rural areas? Describe some of the housing issues in urban environments and how these areas are managed, including infrastructure, water, and solid waste disposal. What are some solutions to problems in African cities (include micro level and macro level strategies)?

10. Create your own essay topic: If there is a topic you are extremely interested in that does not appear above, you may create your own essay topic. Your essay topic must have a clear thesis.

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