Question I

The open system interconnection (OSI) defines seven different layers that highlight protocols of operation within communication. The first layer is known as the physical layer that serves the function of conveying electric impulses, radio or light signals through a mechanical and electrical based network. It incorporates hardware means of data conveying and reception through defined carriers such as cable, physical aspects and cards (Day, 5)

The second layer, data link layer, encodes and decodes data packets into bits. It furnishes protocol knowledge, handles errors, facilitates transmission and manages frame synchronization and flow control. The data link level is further divided into two different sub sections- the logical control link (LLC) and the media access control (MAC) (Day, 11). The LLC sub section controls flow control, frame synchronization, and checks errors in the system. The MAC sub section computer access to information data and grants permission to transmit it.

The third is referred to as the network layer. Its function is to provide routine and switching technology; creating virtual circuit logical paths used for the transmission of information from one node to the other. Other functions of this layer include routing and forwarding, internetworking, addressing, packet sequencing and congestion control. Thereafter is the fourth layer charged with the responsibility of providing transparent data transfer between hosts or end systems. It is also mandated with the task of recovering the system from errors, as well as sequencing packets.

The fifth layer, session, is responsible of establishing, terminating, and managing connections in between different applications. In addition, it sets up, exchanges, terminates, and coordinates conversations; it also engages in dialogue at each end between applications. It also deals with connection and session coordination. The sixth layer, also known as the presentation layer is designed to provide independence from data presentation differences. This is achieved by the translation information from the application format. This stage functions to transform information into a format acceptable by the application. This layer also encrypts and formats data meant for sending across the network, as well as providing freedom from problems in compatibility. This layer is sometimes referred to as the syntax layer.

The seventh layer, the application stage, is charged with the role of supporting processes in the end user stage as well as application support. Partners in communication are clearly identified, and user privacy and authentications are largely emphasized. Any constraints involving data syntax are identified in this stage, with every process in the stage being specified according to the application concerned. In addition, the application layer has a provision for application services for email, file transfers, and other software service networks.

Question II

The transport layer in the OSI system is supposed to provide an efficient data transfer between users at each end, providing reliable data services on transfer to the consequent upper layers. This layer also has the responsibility of controlling link reliability through a given flow control, desegmentation/segmentation, and control of errors. Some protocols in this layer are connection and state focused. This implies that the layer has a capability of keeping track with respective segments and therefore, retransmits in the course of failure (Day, 21). In addition, the transport layer has the responsibility of acknowledging successes in data transmission and sending the next bit of information if no error is detected.

The Network Layer, the third layer in the OSI system, is mandated with the task of providing procedural and functional means of conveying data in variable length sequences; this is done from a given source host in a network to another destined host in a different network. All this is achieved while at the same time maintaining excellent quality service called upon by the layer (as compared to the data link layer that conveys data between parties in the same network coverage). Moreover, the network layer is capable of performing routine functions in the network, and can fragment, reassemble, and report errors in delivery. The second layer in the OSI system, the data link layer, is charged with the role of providing procedural and functional means of transferring information between entities connected to a network, and detecting and correcting errors emanating from the physical layer (Day, 14).

Question III

The structure of a well-designed cable plant entails an appropriate and efficient viability to the desktop with no convergence of audiovisual, security, voice or building system management with the same (Rowe, 45). The same structure should entail a positive influence on the impact placed on network performance form the IP traffic. In addition, the plant cable should adequately save significant time and money and provide optimum service. The importance served by a well-designed cable plant involves ensuring operability, manageability, of the project’s plans. In addition, it also serves to improve the IT availability, quality performance as well as optimum performance and efficiency (Rowe, 52).

Question IV

A. Analogue signaling is a process that involves passing a continuous signal in varying quantities of time. These signals duplicate actual quantity features in their different quantity presentations. They normally use numeric methods for information transmission (Rowe, 21).

B. Digital signaling involves physically transmission of the signal in a discrete value sequence, for example, a digitized analog signal. In is more of a continuous time wavelength form.

C. Simplex transmission is a mode of transmitting data where the transmission path is designed to carry the information in a one-way direction- from the source aimed at the recipient.

D. Half duplex data transmission involves transmitting data in two directions, via the same carrier, but at different times. It implies information transmission through a line of bidirectional format.

E. On the other hand, full duplex transmission involves transmitting data information in two directions at the same time through the same carrier. For example, a local area network where one workstation is involved in sending information while the intended target is receiving it. One moves data on both ends.

F. Multiplexing involves the transmission of streams of information or multiple signals at the same time involving a single carrier; it is done in the form of a complex single signal that is then recovered at the receiving end in different signals.

G. Physical topology refers to the structure of interconnected local area network. This methodology is implemented to connect with cables physical devices, say different computers interconnected in a local area.

H. Logical topology is a term used in network computing describing the arrangement of devices within similar network coverage as well as how communications is achieved between them.

I. Star topology involves a situation where a network host is connected together with a central hub through a point-to-point interconnection. All data that revolves around the network circulates through the central hub (Rowe, 18).

J. Ring topology involves connecting computers in a network configuration where each computer and device in the network is connected in a shape resembling a circle.

K. Circuit switching is a process that involves establishing a dedicated channel in a local network for a specified amount of time. A good example of this system reveals itself through the telephone system.

L. Packet switching is digital system of network communications that segments all transmitted information- with no regard to type, content, or structure- into suitable blocks referred to as packets. This system features delivering streams of data in bi-rates through a similar network.


Works Cited

Day, J.D, and H Zimmermann. “The Osi Reference Model.” Proceedings of the Ieee. 71.12 (n.d.): 1334-1340. Print.

Rowe, Stanford H, and Marsha L. Schuh. Computer Networking. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005. Print.

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